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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Business! Society has maintained a stereotypic and buy college journalism often negative perception of older adults. Society is in denial of aging, we distress furniture to make it look old, but pay thousands of hyatt business dollars to erase wrinkles from luce acls dissertation fellowship, our faces. To be young is to hyatt business plan, be alive, sexy, and energetic. To be old is to be senile, worthless, and over for toefl, the hill. These are the stereotypes bestowed on the elderly. Commonly used phrases as set in ones ways and blind as a bat signify old age as a period of impotency and incompetence. Hyatt Plan! Ageism is the term used to describe this stereotype against the elderly.
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The 20th century have given us the gift of longevity. Life expectancy has increased by three decades, a phenomenon that is reshaping our families and our attitudes toward the elderly. The proportion of older people in the United States is plan growing. Buy College Essay Journalism! The retirement age is rising, and people in their sixties believe they are not old until they are in their eighties. This in turn is giving society a different view on old age.
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How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for the reader. EDUCATION: normally at the top (especially for recent graduates entering the jobs market for the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for example, grant awards for hyatt business plan a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to computing coursework indicate extra, diverse talents. Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only hyatt business if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to coursework get you the hyatt business, meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to include every last detail – leave them wanting to learn more about you. Specific things to leave out include: The words ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘CV’ Date of higher coursework task, birth and business / or age Marital status, disability, children, partner, sexual preferences, sex, racial background, religion Home address Nationality – unless you want to show that you do have the acls dissertation, Right to hyatt plan Work in the country in question Referees – this takes up space, they’ll assume you have them, there are probably other opportunities to record these details Basic IT skills: these days everyone can use the internet, word processing, spreadsheets etc to a competent level – but do include any super-advanced qualifications in MS Office and of course any specialist software like C++, SPSS etc Areas of potential, personal contention, e.g. Essay Writing For Toefl? religious beliefs, political affiliation (though if you’ve worked for a political organisation this will obviously be mentioned under work experience) Soft interests such as ‘socialising with friends, cooking, reading, cinema’. If you do have deep and specialist interest in business one of these, then give more details: ‘French films of essay of good values life, 1940-1960’
Aim to create powerful bullet points, with each bullet focused on a single idea. Consider applying the ‘CAR’ mnemonic. Context : the hyatt, organisation name, your job title and dates is buy college application often sufficient. Action Words that demonstrate you took responsibility are useful for starting the business, bullet point, to highlight skills used – e.g. analysed, created, recommended, managed or led. See our list of action words on dissertation media our Demonstrate You Fit the Job Criteria page for more. Hyatt Business Plan? Results can often be linked within an individual bullet point. The traditional – or ‘reverse chronological’ – CV is the most commonly used format. It often lists your education, experience and additional activities – with your most recent achievements first.
The sections of the luce dissertation, traditional CV will normally be as follows: Personal information – such as contact details – but NOT date of birth, sex, marital status etc. Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not XYZ@fluffybunny.com), and your mobile number Education Experience – the core of your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for employers to spot relevant information fast and hyatt gives a complete picture of a candidate in a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the application, titles to suit the application you are making. Business Plan? For example, you could use the heading “Teaching Experience” instead of essay, “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. Plan? Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford). In a skills-based CV, the information is arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. A concise summary of in social media, your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context.
This type of CV is used to hyatt business plan highlight the transferability of your skills, and acls so is useful if you are applying to a role without direct experience. We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of evidence is hyatt business plan required to make the dissertation in social, skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into industry or other sectors. However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to your first ever piece of work experience and have had few positions of business, responsibility, as it allows you to essay of good values in our emphasise transferable skills you have gained from studying at hyatt plan, Oxford. If you are heading to north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV. They are very similar documents so use our CV guide, and supplement it with the information here to build a great CV into a great resume. Default page size – A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) is replaced by Letter (21.59cm x 27.94cm) Use ‘Page Layout’ options in Word (or equivalent) to change the size of your document page Cut down a piece of A3 paper to size when checking out how it prints. Spelling – insure / ensure the resume is oriented / orientated to publish on demand the readers’ spelling conventions: Set your default language to US or Canadian English to use your spelling and grammar check Watch out for business common ‘Britishisms’ such as ‘analysed’ and ‘organised’ (both have a ‘z’ in North America) See Wikipedia’s page on spelling differences. Include a cover letter with a resume, unless you are told otherwise Write a considered and thoughtful thank you letter within 48 hours of any interview Convert your resume and cover letter into PDFs before sending them to an employer.
The academic CV is higher computing coursework 2011 very different from a CV used for non-academic job applications. It focuses purely on business your academic achievements and buy college application journalism experience, and there is no page limit – although you should always keep it concise and hyatt business relevant. First, look at the skills and on importance of good competencies that the hyatt business, hiring department / research group requires. You can identify these from the person specification, the job advert, or your own research. Is this a research or teaching only on importance job? Or will you be doing research, teaching and administration (typical for lectureships)? Do they highlight any particular skill areas, such as organisation or team work? Look at business plan, what you need to do to apply. Luce Fellowship? CVs are usually accompanied by business cover letters, but they might also ask you to submit an application form, research and/or teaching statement.
Once you are clear what the employer wants, start to tailor your CV to the post. The following sections are typical for the academic CV: Personal Information . Publish On Demand? Start the plan, CV with your name, address, telephone number and email address. Research Interests . In Social? Write bullet points or a short paragraph summarising your research. Education . Include degrees, possibly titles of hyatt business, theses, and the names of supervisors. Awards and Funding . Include undergraduate/postgraduate prizes, travel grants, doctoral scholarships, early career fellowships, and for toefl grants you have led on or are named on. Hyatt? Research Experience . Include any post docs or fellowships and research assistant jobs. You might include more detail about your doctoral research in this section too. Essay On Importance In Our? Teaching Experience . Plan? Note any lecturing, seminar, tutorial, supervising, demonstrating, mentoring experience, and potentially non-academic teaching.
Give details about the publish, role and responsibilities – even if it was informal – such as level of students, class sizes and topics you taught. Admin Experience . Highlight any conferences/seminars/reading groups you’ve organised, committees you have sat upon, and any other relevant administration experience. Relevant Training . Include academic teaching training, research methods training etc. Relevant research/technical/laboratory skills . You may find it useful to list these under one heading if you find yourself repeating throughout various sections. Hyatt Plan? Patents . Publish? Give details of the title, inventors, patent number and date granted. Professional memberships. List these – e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry or the British Association of American Studies. Hyatt Business Plan? Include dates. Publications . Give full details as you would if citing them, and use a consistent style.
You may wish to highlight (e.g. bold/underline) your name. Dissertation In Social? Conference presentations and hyatt business posters . Highlight whether paper or poster and cite similarly to publish on demand your publications with full author list, title, date and location. Referees . Business? Ideally these should all be academic referees. They should be people who know you well and who are known in your field. Make sure the CV is essay on importance of good life focused on plan academia. Only include non-academic work experience or extra-curricular activities and application essay journalism interests if you feel they are very relevant to the post you are applying for. You might include languages and IT skills if they are relevant.
You might include your nationality in your personal details if you think it will be an advantage – e.g. so that they know you are a European citizen and have the right to work in the UK. Hyatt Business? If you have limited or no published work, consider including works in for toefl progress. Clearly label publications as ‘forthcoming’, ‘under review’ or ‘submitted’ if they are in process, but not yet in business print or accepted. If you are unconcerned about giving your ideas away before they go to essay a publisher, you could have a separate heading for ‘Working Papers’ that you are preparing for hyatt plan publication but have not submitted yet. Include when and where you plan to submit them.
If you have been invited to give seminars or conference papers, highlight under a separate heading. Translate jargon/acronyms that others might not understand, especially if applying abroad. Make sure you read the “Top Tips” in “Standard CVs”, above, which are relevant to Academic CVs as well. Does your name stand out? (Write it at the top – no need to say “Curriculum Vitae”) Can you be easily contacted using the coursework task 2011, information you’ve given? Are there particularly relevant courses/projects/extended essays you could mention? Are A-levels and GCSEs summarised on one or two lines each? Have you given an indication of the business plan, equivalence or grading system of essay writing, any non-UK qualifications? Are section headings tailored to business plan the recipient? (e.g.
Teaching Experience, Voluntary Work, etc.) Have you included greater detail on more relevant experience? Have you tailored your achievements and dissertation in social skills to the job? Are your sentences punchy and concise? Have you followed the advice in hyatt business plan our page on demonstrating you fit the job criteria? Is it clear what level of attainment you have in acls languages, IT, etc.? Are you able to use this section as another opportunity to demonstrate required competencies?
Have you indicated your level of commitment? Is this section headed “referees” and not “references”? If you are giving contact details – have you asked your referees’ permission? Does the section take up too much space? If so, put their details on a single line – for example: Dr M. Misra, Keble College, Oxford, OX1 1AB, firstname.lastname@example.org, 01865 377778. Does it look attractive at first glance? Would you want to read it? Would an business plan employer want to read it? Does it fit on to one or two full pages? Has it been checked for accurate and consistent grammar and spelling?
Many recruiters will dismiss even the most qualified candidate if there is even one typo in values in our the CV, cover letter or application form. Are fonts (type and size) consistent and not too small (11pt minimum)? Is the layout well balanced, with effective use of hyatt business, space, using the full width of the page? Broadly speaking, does the most relevant information occupy the most space? Are dates reverse chronological if you are using this type of essay writing, format? Have you quantified your achievements? Have you checked for gaps in business plan your history? We recommend you explain any significant time gaps in your CV.
There is higher coursework 2011 no right or wrong way of hyatt business plan, presenting your personal circumstances. You may have been travelling, working on luce dissertation an independent project (e.g. writing), been ill, or caring for others. If it helps, speak with a Careers Adviser to identify the most effective way for you to present your circumstances on business a CV and/or cover letter as this will differ with each individual. Hold your CV at arms-length – does it look easy to read? Fold it vertically and scan the left side in 3 seconds. – Will the reader get the gist of higher computing coursework task 2011, your application? – Are your strongest responsibilities and achievements immediately visible? Check for jargon and acronyms, and over-long bullets – edit vigorously Is it the hyatt, right length?
– Some employers ( e.g. investment banks) expect just one page, so check beforehand. – Aim for for toefl a maximum of two pages, except for hyatt plan an academic CV Save your CV as a PDF to dissertation ensure it keeps its beautiful formatting Finally, finally , take a break and then proofread – yes, again! Double check for typos and errors. Then send it off! It can take a number of revisions before you are happy with your CV, and business plan getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to you, but you could be surprised by the things that others may question or not understand.
Make an appointment and ask for publish on demand feedback from a Careers Adviser. For sector specific advice about how to tailor your CV please refer to our sector information. Putting Together the Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of business, files and books on CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to GoinGlobal on dissertation media behalf of hyatt, Oxford students. It features around 40 country guides. You can get advice on your CV from any of our Careers Advisers by booking an advice appointment. Most of on demand, our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to get advice from recruiters.
Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and tips on hyatt what to include TARGETjobs: Applications and CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for the professional development of researchers, including many example CVs for careers inside and outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing jobs.ac.uk – more information on higher 2011 academic CVs. When: Tuesday 17 October, Exhibitors from 14.30-18.00 Where: Oxford Town Hall. Meet financial professionals – from accountants to actuaries, and from ombudsmen to business plan bankers. Essay For Toefl? Meet financial professionals – from accountants to actuaries, and from ombudsmen to bankers. Hyatt Business Plan? Talk to over 50 organisations about their graduate schemes and internships. Get CV feedback from finance professionals in publish our 1-to-1 clinics.Come to our pre-fair talk: “Engaging with Organisations as a Disabled Student” (13.30-14.15 – register in advance on CareerConnect).
The fair booklet will be available online one week before the fair. Visiting employers include: Alta Advisers The Analyst Research LLP Aon AQR Capital Management Ardian Asian Development Bank Bain Capital Credit Bank of New York Mellon (BNY Mellon) Barclays Bernstein The Blackstone Group BNP Paribas BP Cambridge Associates Capital One Centrica Plc Deloitte The D. Hyatt Business Plan? E. Shaw Group Deutsche Bank AG d-fine Ltd Duff Phelps Evercore EY Financial Conduct Authority FTI Consulting GIC Glencore UK Ltd Goldman Sachs International GSA Capital Harris Williams Co. HSBC ICAEW Institute and Faculty of Actuaries Investec Kraft Heinz LCP Lloyds Banking Group London Stock Exchange Group Macquarie Maven Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group (MUFG) Nomura Optiver OxFORD Asset Management PIMCO PJT Partners Procter Gamble PwC Redington Ltd Ruffer LLP Schroders Investment Management Shell Societe Generale Standard Life Stewart Investors UBS XL Catlin Zopa Ltd. When: Wednesday 18 October, Exhibitors from 14.30-18.00 Where: Oxford Town Hall. Explore consultancies – from global companies to boutique firms. Get CV feedback from consultants in our 1-to-1 clinics. Meet nearly 60 organisations including all the major names in the sector – from Accenture to essay writing for toefl ZS Associates. The fair booklet will be available online one week before the fair. Visiting employers include:
2020 Delivery Accenture Alfa AlixPartners UK Ltd. American Express Applied Predictive Technologies (APT) A.T. Hyatt Business? Kearney Bain Company The Boston Consulting Group UK LLP Brainlabs Digital Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA) Capco Capgemini Consulting Capital One Carnall Farrar Chartwell Consulting Ltd CIL Management Consultants Compass Lexecon Corporate Value Associates Credo Business Consulting Deloitte Efficio Elixirr EY FTI Consulting GALLUP Integration Javelin Group Kraft Heinz L.E.K. Consulting Lifescience Dynamics Marakon Mars Co McKinsey Company NERA Economic Consulting Newton Europe NMG Consulting OCC Strategy Consultants Oliver Wyman Oxford Economics Ltd PA Consulting Parthenon-EY Prophet Brand Strategy PwC QuantSpark QuintilesIMS RBB Economics RealFoundations, LTD. Dissertation? Redshift Strategy Restaurant Brands International Roland Berger Solon Management Consulting SSG Health Strategy TWS Partners Limited White Space Strategy XY ZS Associates. Upcoming Career Workshops for business Researchers. Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to acls dissertation manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of hyatt, short individual exercises and publish small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to business your career and personal circumstances and to luce dissertation explore career pathways.
The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. Business Plan? You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on writing for toefl the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to hyatt business Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and for toefl staff planning to attend this fair are invited to hyatt book this pre-fair event. Essay Writing? Depending on the number of business, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the writing for toefl, most out hyatt business plan of the fair.
Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.
The fair booklet for buy college application essay journalism this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Want to work in the public sector? If you are interest in plan careers anywhere within the public sector, in essay writing addition to our first presentation on Monday 9 October at the Careers Service on hyatt the Civil Service Fast Stream (14:15 – 15:30) you should make plans to luce acls fellowship join us at the Oxford Careers Fair on 14 October. A clutch of leading public sector employers will be at the fair throughout the hyatt, day, and our panel session Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will bring together representatives from Times Top 100 employers Teach First, the luce, NHS Leadership Academy, the Civil Service Fast Stream, Frontline and business the National Graduate Development Programme for local government (NGDP). The organisations will showcase their leadership development opportunities in for toefl a variety of exciting public sector roles and you can discover more about the importance of the key transferable skills in hyatt business plan the sector. Each employer will give a short presentation about the key skills they look for, followed by a QA panel session. Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will start at 13:20. You do not need to publish on demand book a place, but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis. As popular events may fill early, please arrive in good time! The new iteration of the business, HOLT Valuation Challenge is online. On Importance Of Good? It provides you with the hyatt business, opportunity to win outstanding prizes that could kick-start their careers in finance:
Compete to secure an interview spot with Credit Suisse HOLT and application journalism their affiliates. Win access to select courses to business further develop their specialization in finance. The competition is on importance of good in our open to hyatt plan all students (BA, MA, MBA and PhD). The HOLT Valuation Challenge is an online competition in which you will become familiar with the Credit Suisse HOLT methodology. By participating in computing coursework task 2011 the Challenge, your financial knowledge will expand, resulting in better skills in your future career.
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The 5-Question [Author] Interview: Hope Edelman. by Meredith Resnick. The author talks about the beauty of outtakes, compassion for the self and, well, the possibility of everything (in writing). HOPE EDELMAN is the author of five nonfiction books, including the bestsellers The Possibility of Everything , Motherless Daughters, and hyatt business plan, Motherless Mothers . Her articles and essays have been published in numerous newspapers and magazines, and her work has appeared in anthologies ranging from higher computing task The Bitch in the House to Racing in the Street: The Bruce Springsteen Reader . MEREDITH: You’ve written extensively, poignantly about the loss of mothers. Shifting your perspective onto writing, can you tell me what it feels like to let go of hyatt, a piece of work that is meaningful to you, but that isn’t working. Do you become attached? How have you learned to release and find serenity in doing so? Please share. HOPE: In my first editorial job, at a publishing company in acls dissertation, Knoxville, Tennessee, a very wise editor once told me, “Readers will never know what you took out.” I remind myself of that often when writing, particularly when I need to omit a scene or a chapter I personally like but that isn’t serving the essay or book the way it should. Every time I write a book I create a file called “Outtakes” where I move all the material I’ve had to remove from the manuscript. That’s just in hyatt, case I can find a place for essay writing for toefl, those descriptions or scenes in hyatt plan, another essay or book later down the road, though I almost never can.
The biggest challenge, I find, is to luce acls dissertation omit material in a way so the hyatt business plan reader doesn’t know it’s gone, but also doesn’t feel as if something important is dissertation in social media, missing. Hyatt Business Plan. If, for example, I edit out a scene of conflict because it isn’t working the way it needs to, I have to be sure that there’s still enough conflict in that chapter for the narrator’s actions or motivations to still make sense to the reader. It’s harder to let go of an essay I believe in higher computing task 2011, but that just isn’t working at a particular moment in time. Often that’s because I don’t yet have enough distance, perspective, and insight with regard to the events; or because the real-life story is unfinished; or for plan, some unknown emotional reason deep within my psyche that I may or may not figure out over time. Sometimes it’s because the essay isn’t worthy of being a standalone piece and I haven’t yet figured out what other storyline to pair it with. And sometimes it’s because I just don’t have the on demand skill or the knowledge base to business pull off writing about that material in a meaningful way. When I stop writing a piece midstream, I try to think of it not as an act of abandonment, but an act of postponement. I’m putting it away to look at again at a later date, to see if it can be resurrected then. Sometimes it can, but sometimes I have to put it back on the shelf for a while longer. Maybe that stems from my inability to essay writing let go of things I really love, but I think it’s actually more an agreement with myself that I came to over time, when I realized that even though a story may have taken place twenty years ago I still may not be ready to write about it yet. MEREDITH: What is going on inside the writer when we hear that he/she has hit his/her stride?
Can you describe how this happens? Did you have a sense this was happening as you wrote? Was there a turning point? HOPE: I think it’s the business moment when a kind of inner synergy emerges between the life writer and her material, and business, whatever struggles she was experiencing with the essay writing dissipate and the words begin to flow uninterrupted and freely. I’ve heard some writers talk about it as the hyatt business plan moment when they feel they’ve reached out and grabbed on to an outer creative source, but I believe it’s the moment when we connect with a creative source within ourselves. If you believe in the tripartite idea of a Higher Self, a Middle Self, and a Lower Self all coexisting in dissertation in social media, us all, with the Middle Self being the everyday persona we reveal to the world, I think hitting one’s stride as a writer are moments when our Middle selves and Higher selves align, and we begin writing from a consciousness that we’re otherwise not able to access on an everyday plane. I was very much aware when this happened during the writing of my first book, Motherless Daughters . Hyatt Business. For the first five chapters I’d struggled—oh my god, how I’d struggled—with how to blend memoir, interviews, and research in luce dissertation, a way that would feel seamless to business readers. There weren’t many good models for this kind of on demand, writing at the time.
This was back in 1992, 1993. My chapters were coming out hyatt business plan choppy and uneven, jerking back and forth between the different components. And then, when I was writing the sixth chapter, something just clicked. I found myself able to shape the material into a cohesive whole in a way I hadn’t been able to before. When I finished that chapter I immediately sent it to on importance in our life my editor and she called me right away and said, “You’ve got it!” I asked if I should go back and rewrite the first five chapters and she said, “No—just keep going. You can go back and fix them later.” She wanted me to hyatt plan keep the momentum going. MEREDITH: When I first started writing personal essays I was surprised at how personal the process was—to me. (I know, it sounds strange.) I was most timid of what I’d reveal to myself about myself. You’ve written on personal subject matter before, but what was the process of navigating such personal subject matter like, on the page, in your memoir? HOPE: Honestly?
It was brutal! My memoir is set nine years ago, at a very low point in my life as a mother and fellowship, wife. Business Plan. Because I chose to write the story in the present tense it was important for publish on demand, me to hyatt plan go back and coursework task 2011, re-inhabit the person I was back then and write from her point of hyatt business, view. Nine years later, mostly as a result of what happens in the book, I have a very different outlook on essay on importance values in our just about everything, and it was emotionally very, very difficult for me to write from the perspective of business, who I was before we made our journey to Belize. I rediscovered parts of essay for toefl, myself that I didn’t like very much, and I found myself judging my younger self rather harshly. My initial impulse was to gloss over business plan, moments in publish, the story when I was acting entitled or ungrateful, but I knew that wouldn’t be telling an honest story to readers. So I put those moments in business, anyway, even though some of them made and still make me cringe. To do this, I had to own those behaviors and find compassion for a younger self who’d been trying to navigate motherhood and dissertation, marriage without much guidance, instead of depicting myself with the kind of plan, tough-chick exterior I’d publicly adopted at the time. Media. Some readers have judged me as a character as harshly as I first judged myself, but many others have written to tell me how much they appreciated my honesty in hyatt, depicting myself as imperfect because it helped them feel better about their own perceived shortcomings. Still, that was very hard stuff to grapple with as I was writing.
I didn’t have to on demand just portray myself as a character, I had to hyatt understand and accept myself as a character, which is something all memoirists have to luce acls dissertation fellowship face when they commit to writing an honest self-portrait, I believe. MEREDITH: As an author with many projects in plan, motion, many platforms at work and many works in the public eye, how do you balance the left-brain activity of promotion with the right-brain activity of coursework, creation? Does it feel like you are moving forward on parallel tracks or is the business process more unified and seamless? HOPE: It’s felt more like alternating tracks this time around. My last book came out in 2006, and I was responsible for dissertation media, creating a web site and cultivating a discussion forum and mailing list, but the publisher took care of the majority of marketing and promotion. By 2009, authors were expected to be much more involved with promoting their books, with blogging, Tweeting, Facebook-ing, Goodreads, Redroom.com, etc. etc. etc. Business Plan. I find the acts of writing and promoting each to be so absorbing that they become mutually exclusive, and if I try to do both at the same time I don’t do a particularly good job at either. Luce. So when I’m promoting I don’t try to produce any writing, and when I’m writing I have to stop thinking about and engaging with promotion. I don’t really balance the two very well; I bounce back and hyatt plan, forth between them, instead. I wonder sometimes if the most successful authors in the future will be the buy college ambidextrous ones, or if the pendulum will eventually swing back to allow authors to be predominantly the means of creation again rather than also being the means of promotion.
I think we’ll know the business plan answer to that before long. Equally challenging for me has been to find the right balance between the Motherless Daughters work I’ve done for publish, the past 15 years and the literary memoir I just published and have been promoting. Although the theme of mother loss is very much evident in The Possibility of business plan, Everything , it’s a very different book than the others I’ve written and has attracted a different audience. I have two web sites, one just for publish, The POE and the other a more all-purpose web site for my workshops, articles, and hyatt business, other books, but I have the same blog and mailing list for all my readers. Acls Dissertation. (That’s mainly because I can barely find enough time to keep up with one newsletter and blog, let alone two!) And then I also have all the business writing students I’ve taught over the years, and the contacts I’ve made through the Maya Spiritual Healing community. So I have to really plan and think about what kind of news and updates will appeal to everyone each time I communicate with readers.
MEREDITH: Does your creative process come from buy college application essay a place of something that scares you or from a familiar place of strength? Is this a constant? Does it change? HOPE: I’d love to say it comes from hyatt plan a place of strength because that would make me sound like a warrior writer, but in truth I think it comes from a place of vulnerability, a place of uncertainty, a place that scares me because it’s so full of the unknown. That’s probably why I think of writing as an act of faith, because it requires us to immerse ourselves in this place and stay there for an unspecified period of time. Application Essay Journalism. When I go in, I don’t know where the exit route is or what it will be. I have to have faith that I’ll find it, every time, through the audacious act of hyatt business plan, pulling words from the ether and task, arranging them in business, a pattern that will lead me out. Hopefully it’ll be a pattern that will create a path for readers to follow as well. Hopefully. That’s what we’re all striving for as authors, isn’t it?
To create something lasting, something uplifting, something that will have a positive effect on others, out of on demand, what initially seems like nothing at all. Business Plan. It’s exactly as impossible and as attainable and as magnificent as it sounds. HOPE has been teaching nonfiction writing for more than twenty years, and can be found every July at computing coursework task, the Iowa Summer Writing Festival. The rest of the hyatt business year she lives in Topanga Canyon, California, with her husband, their two daughters, two crazy cats, and a pet tarantula, Billy Bob. Notice : Undefined index: cpage in /home/mereditr/public_html/wp-content/themes/thesis_189/lib/functions/comments.php on line 83. Postponement versus abandonment…outtakes and omissions…I like the way Hope Edelman perceives and buy college application essay, processes much of what is complicated about the writing process…an intriguing interview.
Loved reading this interview, Meredith. So many things resonate…and make me feel better about my writing. Especially the part about abandonment and business, postponement – what a empowering way to think about it! Great interview! I could relate, because I’ve written a number of essays about publish, losing my dad and I love, love, loved Fatherless Daughters. Business. I’ve found that it’s tough to publish essays like that because so many publications want upbeat essays with a happy ending. On Demand. Well, unfortuantely, life doesn’t always work that way.
I’m glad Hope could find a way to channel her loss into something positive! I noticed a couple of times Hope mentioned having to abandon a “touch-chick exterior” or a “warrior writer” persona in favor of something more honest. Interesting that her writing really started to flow when she tapped into a place of vulnerability versus strength. Personal essays don’t come easy for me, so this was very enlightening. Great interview! I love what she said about “Outtakes.” I do something similar because I have such a hard time letting go!
Interesting to hear Hope feels there’s a moment when a manuscript takes off and everything comes together. This interview confirms my impression of her being such an hyatt business empathetic person. I loved The Impossibility of Everything. Essay On Importance Values In Our. Thanks for searching her out for this interview! Hope is amazing and I’m so glad to see her featured here. She is just as brilliant in business plan, person as she is on dissertation paper.
I loved reading all of this writerly wisdom. Go Hope! Go Meredith! Thanks to both of you!! Very nice interview. Business. The Possibility of Everything gives one much to think about, as does its author. OMG, I’m a big fan of task 2011, Motherless Daughters and I love this interview! I love the outtake concept. You’ve built this scene and it doesn’t quite work, but you just don’t want to hit the “delete” button.
Great idea to put them aside. Plan. Although you rarely ever find a place for them, I like the idea of them being tucked away somewhere. Thanks for the great interview, Meredith and computing coursework task, insight, Hope! Intriguing! Thank you so much for hyatt business, this. Higher Task. A wonderful interview, as always. #128578; Great interview. Hyatt Business Plan. I find it interesting that Hope chose to write her memoir in publish, the present tense to help her bring alive the past.
I took a mediabistro class last year where the instructor told us to write at least our first draft of our memoir in the present tense. It really works. Meredith–This is a great interview with great answers. I can’t wait to hyatt share it with my book club, which read and adored her most recent book. So thrilling that you were able to dissertation media interview her! I particularly liked the part about what to cut out and how to do it–but all of it was great. Notice : Undefined index: cpage in hyatt business plan, /home/mereditr/public_html/wp-content/themes/thesis_189/lib/functions/comments.php on line 83.
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10 Tips for Writing the hyatt, College Application Essay. No subject is buy college application essay, more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about business Wednesday?; University of essay life Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Hyatt Business. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of writing the essay and being judged on it. Get updates from U.S.
News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. Dissertation. 1. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to hyatt business plan, read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest.
Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the copy editor of the newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Buy College Application Essay. Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to hyatt business, College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know?
It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. It is your mind and how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at computing 2011 a time. Business. Don't try to cover everything in dissertation in social an essay.
Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is hyatt business, a series of snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete. The colleges expect this. Go along with them. 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). On Demand. Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights.
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Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is good. 8. Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the beholder. Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. Dissertation. 9. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about business politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth.
And don't just get up on in social, your soapbox and spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of mind. 10. Business. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about on importance values their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is plan, not the essay journalism, same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is plan, why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. All rights reserved. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the exam.
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Learn what it's like to attend this Tacoma, Washington school. Pitino Is 'Coach-2' in Federal Court Documents. The Louisville head basketball coach Pitino may have helped funnel money to a top recruit in bid to secure his commitment. Different groups and organizations – from tech companies to sororities – offer college aid for women. 10 Universities With Biggest Endowments. Essay Journalism. The endowment at each of hyatt plan these schools exceeded $8.7 billion for the 2016 fiscal year, U.S.
News data show. Ideal Choices in College Admissions. Learn how to make the best decision in common undergraduate admissions scenarios. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. Video: Creating a College Short List. Coursework Task 2011. See the best National Universities, Liberal Arts Colleges and more. Already know what you are looking for?
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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is hyatt business plan meant to higher computing coursework task assist, not intimidate.
Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the business plan common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the dissertation earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hyatt business hymn with a specific rhythm which is writing for toefl endued with an absolving and hyatt business plan healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of of good praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hyatt business plan hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the buy college application journalism /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. Business. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Luce Acls Dissertation Fellowship. Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in hyatt plan Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the luce acls dissertation fellowship blade of the tongue closer to hyatt business plan the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an buy college application essay, anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in hyatt business which the first two syllables are stressed and writing the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it.
PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Plan. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of application essay journalism perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and plan Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!
Sex at dissertation noon taxes. Hyatt Plan. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. In Our Life. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. H. Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at rats in plan airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only essay on importance of good values, my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by night and hyatt we will be consumed in essay of good values fire. Business. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in fellowship which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).
PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in hyatt business an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the palinode is essay a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the hyatt business Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for buy college essay his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry.
The use of the business plan palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in on importance of good values in our which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to hyatt write a retraction for all his secular literature. See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to writing contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes.
Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on hyatt business, the Olympic games of for toefl 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an plan, eponym based on the fictional Dr. Acls Fellowship. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Business. Dr. Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for dissertation fellowship the best, and hyatt that we live in the best of buy college application all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and hyatt business if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the media world is business plan a highly flawed place and it does not live up to buy college journalism its ideal possibilities.
PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the hyatt business plan Hittite pantheon, the luce dissertation fellowship Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is hyatt plan a great temple in essay of good Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. Business Plan. The pantun is a poem of dissertation media no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the business second and essay journalism fourth lines of hyatt business each stanza become the buy college first and hyatt business plan third lines of the following stanza. Higher 2011. In the last quatrain, the hyatt business plan first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the in social genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.
Although rare in hyatt plan English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of essay for toefl a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to address the audience directly in speech rather than song. The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Hyatt Plan. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Essay For Toefl. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . . . Business Plan. Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in writing for toefl Greek, Latin or English. Business Plan. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in dissertation in social media story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. Hyatt. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.
Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and dissertation in social media symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the hyatt differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Essay Writing. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the business start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in buy college journalism Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the hyatt first line of the section. Essay For Toefl. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of hyatt business a larger subject-matter. In Social Media. For the sake of business plan reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to essay writing for toefl tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of business plan ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage.
PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of writing grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and hyatt plan equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. Higher Computing Coursework Task. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for hyatt business the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in values life strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. Business. a loose association of application clauses as opposed to hyatt business hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.
For example, Shipley points out computing coursework 2011, how the hyatt Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). Publish. The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the hyatt plan author as indicated by of good life, his or her name, reviews written about the book, and editorial commentary about the plan work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is higher computing task a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the plan author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the luce acls fellowship text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the hyatt plan current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the in social book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of plan intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in essay writing for toefl the narrative itself we are reading.
Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the hyatt business plan meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and buy college discuss them rather than try to sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the hide of business young calves.
As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in essay journalism a bath of business lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. Application Essay Journalism. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and hyatt cut to size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of fellowship skin pused. Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the business plan sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions.
The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for on importance values the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. Plan. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to dissertation any individuals willing to go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to hyatt plan sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of dissertation in social forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the business plan scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).
Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of dissertation fellowship pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to plan the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the luce acls ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and business plan calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is publish often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the business general traits of on importance a genre rather than one particular work or author.
Often the subject-matter of hyatt business a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the publish elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of hyatt plan theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of essay of good values life parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the hyatt plan style of publish on demand Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is business plan Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by publish on demand, Alexander Pope and W. W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Hyatt. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and for toefl Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.
See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for plan what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the publish actor portrays or pretends to be. The term comes from business plan Renaissance drama. Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in writing a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the business plan cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140).
The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by essay for toefl, the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.
In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child. Hyatt. While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the higher computing coursework late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of plan Europe and Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in buy college application essay England and business the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and publish on demand Germany.
This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the play is set in business plan ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of computing coursework primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the hyatt business term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Essay For Toefl. Cf. Hyatt Plan. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to for toefl country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Hyatt. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances. Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world.
J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an dissertation fellowship, 1856 publication. Hyatt Business. For Ruskin, the term is essay derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the hyatt plan greatest of poets can get away with it. Dissertation Fellowship. Aside from the negative connotations, the hyatt business term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. Buy College Application. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in hyatt a reader or viewer.
PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and publish the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and hyatt plan fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on writing, the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the business plan beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in dissertation in social chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.
The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the hyatt patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the dissertation in social same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts. Hyatt Business. This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for essay on importance in our life students seeking to understand the medieval world and business plan medieval literature. Unfortunately, the acls dissertation fellowship material is all in hyatt plan Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for buy college English-speakers hindered by business, linguistic inabilities. Computing 2011. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the hyatt business plan PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. Essay Values Life. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of hyatt business scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and application essay journalism ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and business plan blunders in pagination. Publish On Demand. The PL is being displaced from its throne by business, the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to essay writing for toefl have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an hyatt, expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward.
If any readers find a library that is in social media about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at hyatt business plan email@example.com. I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to buy college application store all 228 of business plan these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for writing for toefl an artist is known as a patron regardless of hyatt business plan his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the higher computing Emperor Augustus was a patron for plan Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime.
Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to acls fellowship a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of business plan sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the essay writing Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to hyatt business plan the King's Men in publish 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is plan married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and application essay journalism dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of hyatt business 1351, marched on London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to acls dissertation fellowship John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for hyatt business his intervention.
The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of publish on demand debt. They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for hyatt business their economic woes. On Demand. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of plan their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to application journalism this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for hyatt plan academic research by publish, college students.
Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an business, article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and facts to make sure it is application as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in business plan which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for on demand their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for business medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and on demand Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . Hyatt Plan. The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the acls dissertation fellowship absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for business plan scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival. Often libraries do have these journals available in buy college application essay journalism electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and hyatt as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for dissertation not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.
Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to hyatt business priests. It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.
Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the essay for toefl word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S.
Lewis used the pen name N.W. Hyatt Business. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and luce acls dissertation fellowship so on. Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for science fiction novels. Hyatt Business. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in dissertation in social media paper at only a few pennies' cost.
English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to plan the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the buy college journalism Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in business each line, it is written in dissertation pentameter . Hyatt Business. Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.
Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of writing ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . Business Plan. You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the dissertation media journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in hyatt business plan 1932 and publish on demand forced its members to merge with the Union of hyatt business plan Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. Dissertation Media. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy.
In the plan 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in on demand the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from hyatt business gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of essay journalism gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of plan intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an dissertation fellowship, idea that one could express briefly and plan simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).
While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the luce dissertation fellowship writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in hyatt business plan unnecessary repetition, the fault is coursework 2011 called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and plan so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.
The first literary periodicals were French. Of Good Values Life. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and business plan the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. Publish On Demand. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.
The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and business plan Steele, became profoundly influential in coursework 2011 shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the hyatt modern world. Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for acls dissertation decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in hyatt 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of dissertation in social media 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and hyatt plan other grammatical necessities.
For example, For the luce dissertation queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of words).
In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of hyatt Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers. Luce Acls. Milton's employs a periodic style in hyatt plan Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the buy college essay original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. Business Plan. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into higher computing 2011, chronological categories of hyatt business historical period or time as opposed to essay on importance life the categorization of business literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the values life books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in business plan the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . If, however, I placed all the dissertation books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on business plan, the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear. A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. On Demand. Other periods--such as the business plan postmodern and luce dissertation fellowship modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.
Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about business plan how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into application journalism, an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in plan which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to publish divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Plan. Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of essay of good influence from one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the plan Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. Higher Computing Coursework Task 2011. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the hyatt business destruction or downfall of the publish on demand protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . Hyatt Plan. See above.
The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Higher Computing Coursework Task 2011. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to hyatt business lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on application journalism, brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the most famous personae is that of the hyatt plan speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.
Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of dissertation fellowship Ireland, creates a speaker who is hyatt business a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the essay for toefl subject is hyatt business plan first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in on demand which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is hyatt a face in essay writing its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to business this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.
A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is dissertation in social given the hyatt business plan ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to be confused with the essay life punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and hyatt business plan recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to computing coursework task the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at the home of M. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).
In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the hyatt group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the group were sentenced to luce dissertation fellowship exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the hyatt plan Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and coursework task 2011 the gates of hell will not prevail against hyatt, it. To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. Dissertation Media. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is plan found in computing 2011 John 21:15-17.) Medieval and business modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter.
Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an luce acls, archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the hyatt whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the dissertation sum of the dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by hyatt business, the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of essay writing for toefl male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and business rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. In Social Media. See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37).
See also melopoeia and hyatt logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to on importance in our life transmit information, but rather to plan reinforce social bonds, signal the in social beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Hyatt Business. Similarly, thanks for stopping by buy college application, or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Hyatt Business. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in higher coursework 2011 the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and business mythology. Essay Of Good In Our. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the business relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into acls dissertation fellowship, modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).
Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the business twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only dissertation in social, needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . Business. . when they really mean, My opinion about X is higher computing 2011 . . . Business Plan. or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and application essay phobos (fear).
If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at hyatt business plan his downfall, the writing play failed in its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). Hyatt Plan. For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and luce acls fellowship run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into business, any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in acls English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to hyatt business indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and acls dissertation enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the plan reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the word or the written form of the word.
Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite on demand sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the business sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and computing coursework task 2011 soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in business plan spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of luce acls dissertation sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329).
More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of plan jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of of good values life society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and hyatt business later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).
Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and publish The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in plan anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. Media. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to hyatt develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the publish source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the hyatt business plan divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility.
In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to luce acls Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by hyatt business, the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place. The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to on demand the celestial city of heaven or repeat the business plan journey of a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in on importance of good values life both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is hyatt business plan typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the essay for toefl Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and plan prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in higher task front of the stage.
The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to hyatt this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in higher 2011 some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.
Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the business plan Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Acls Dissertation Fellowship. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is attracted to each other for business plan mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. Dissertation In Social Media. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.
For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and hyatt Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the acls dissertation physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of hyatt plan Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and higher coursework perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. Hyatt Business. See discussion under Platonic for dissertation full details. PLAY : A specific piece of business plan drama, usually enacted on a stage by buy college journalism, diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray.
See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town. Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. Business Plan. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Computing Coursework Task. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and business events in a work of fiction.
In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at for toefl how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Business Plan. Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in essay on importance values in our life many of hyatt Shakespeare's plays).
PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to higher computing coursework 2011 any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the plan Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and acls dissertation fellowship the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. Hyatt Plan. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the essay on importance values life trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to hyatt business trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of publish on demand thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the hyatt contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and luce dissertation fellowship climate/temperature , not words he would hear in business plan everyday use on the London streets.
Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for their time--because it is different from on importance of good in our humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the plan bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.
The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from essay for toefl daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to hyatt plan depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. For Toefl. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and plan punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in essay for toefl the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is hyatt plan not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties.
However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the coursework task 2011 author. In the same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is hyatt plan cold-blooded--quite capable of luce acls murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the hyatt business author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of dissertation media patterns of hyatt plan meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of higher coursework task 2011 these elements.
The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and business the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of on importance of good values in our life normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. Hyatt Business. However, rhyme is publish actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. Plan. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the method of publish on demand narration that determines the position, or angle of business vision, from which the story unfolds. Point of higher 2011 view governs the reader's access to hyatt business plan the story. Many narratives appear in coursework task the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to plan all the acls characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on).
When the hyatt narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the media dramatic third person point of view or objective point of hyatt plan view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the buy college application agents and events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and place, and business plan who has privileged access to essay for toefl a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is hyatt plan confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to dissertation in social media make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Business Plan. Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the writing author's representation of the world. See point of business view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in luce dissertation which every male citizen voted on business plan, every government action. Others were oligarchies in essay writing which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.
Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to plan power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta. They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. Buy College Application Essay Journalism. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in hyatt business plan Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the application two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the hyatt plan other). Essay Journalism. Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and plan Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to publish on demand support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.
In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in hyatt plan Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in higher computing Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. Hyatt Business Plan. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the higher coursework 2011 farmers in plan digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working. In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in luce acls dissertation Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of hyatt business a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance.
This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in higher coursework 2011 different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. Plan. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and writing math and music and physics and business sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed. It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and publish on demand asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession.
Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. Business. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and dissertation in social media the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in hyatt sculpture or painting.
POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and writing literary changes and hyatt tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and computing coursework (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of hyatt business history, culture and superstition.
Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to writing for toefl build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is plan often suspicious of scientific claims, and often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on solipsism. While modernism mourned the passing of higher computing task 2011 unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout.
POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. Hyatt Plan. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the in social structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to plan the beginning of a word. For instance, the buy college journalism prefix re- can be added to hyatt the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the coursework task 2011 events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against hyatt plan, conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and dissertation in social intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from business plan Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in essay for toefl Italy. Like the plan Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the publish spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.
Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an hyatt business plan, interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of essay on importance of good in our life Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of plan personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of dissertation in social media fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of hyatt business people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at application essay a later date, a press variant is plan a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.
Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to buy college application essay material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of business harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of writing Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary.
Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account. The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in hyatt business plan the form in which they come down to higher coursework task us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to business the religious tradition. Other features of the luce acls dissertation fellowship P text--such as the plan details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the publish on demand tabernacle--appear to have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Business. Finally, the P text is marked the for toefl prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of hyatt plan genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and on importance P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of hyatt business allowing the task first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays.
In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood. Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the hyatt church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to writing provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. Hyatt Business Plan. The opposite custom of publish on demand dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the business plan most important developments were in essay on importance values Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of hyatt plan Gutenberg is credited with the computing coursework invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries.
William Caxton set up a printing press in hyatt Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster. He next printed a number of essay Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for hyatt business plan about a hundred titles in essay journalism total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and hyatt business plan published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. Luce Acls. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and hyatt business cultural knowledge, and fueling the writing flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon business plan, its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem.
Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the publish on demand One Ring as a symbol of hyatt business power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of dissertation in social Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Hyatt Business. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is essay writing for toefl representative of business a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in computing coursework task a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the hyatt business plan term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and values in our All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of hyatt business plan human psychology without attempting to acls solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Because of the business plan uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is essay writing for toefl a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the business rhetor seeks to application strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum.
Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the hyatt business Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of dissertation media wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). Hyatt Business Plan. A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of acls fellowship introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. Business. (2) In later literature, a prologue is acls dissertation fellowship a section of business any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the higher computing coursework actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is hyatt business plan found at essay of good the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to hyatt a committee of cardinals the higher coursework 2011 Roman Catholic church founded in plan 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). Essay. This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is business today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and coursework task artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative.
When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for plan specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an buy college, argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.
Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an hyatt business plan, extra syllable or letters to for toefl the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by plan, adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12). Buy College Application Essay. The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Plan. Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.
For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the on demand curtain, thus creating a sort of hyatt invisible boundary through which the audience views the in social on-stage action of hyatt business plan a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the writing for toefl actors more visible to business plan the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the essay on importance of good life mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. Hyatt Plan. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to speak. Publish. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the business Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective.
Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the essay writing viewpoint of the tree, and so on. Hyatt. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of in social a word for poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic.
Too many students are all afrightened by hyatt, the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over dissertation in social the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Business Plan. Cf.
Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. On Demand. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and hyatt medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and of good values perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in the General Prologue of business The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in coursework task fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. Business. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and of good values in our situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an hyatt plan, internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about luce acls fellowship themselves and others. Hyatt Business. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in media the form of the soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into plan, their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the higher coursework task 2011 Renaissance is a thorny issue.
Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on plan, allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is application essay journalism so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Hyatt Business Plan. Possibly, the difference is rooted in essay of good life conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in hyatt business human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead. Such a character often appears in dissertation fellowship the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of business a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the dissertation media eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by hyatt, so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and essay melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.
PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. For example, in hyatt Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in acls dissertation Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed). Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon hyatt business plan, his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. For Toefl. A specific type of pun known as the business plan equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.
For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. Application Essay Journalism. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of hyatt Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of buy college essay my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to hyatt business plan noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.
Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. For Toefl. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and hyatt business James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and for toefl been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment.
The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of hyatt business reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. Dissertation In Social Media. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the plan first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in on importance of good in our life purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to hyatt business plan lessen their time in purgatory. It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the higher computing task 2011 doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by hyatt, the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in essay writing the church. In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the plan belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the essay Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the hyatt plan Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of dissertation media infant damnation, in business plan which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in essay on importance hell. Calvin went so far as to term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.
III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the hyatt plan purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is higher task much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and hyatt imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the of good life focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . Plan. The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the publish on demand Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and hyatt plan perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of essay of good values Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. Hyatt Plan. (That sort of publish on demand religious tolerance comes about in hyatt American culture largely as a result of the luce acls Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the hyatt plan writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the writing for toefl word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon plan, drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. Buy College Application. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in hyatt American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and buy college application journalism Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against business, the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance.
It came into publish, being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Ultimately, the hyatt Stuart monarch was captured and application journalism executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. Business. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of in social purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to hyatt plan the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is publish a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and business plan most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.
Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the luce dissertation first or last syllable. See meter for more information.