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THE MEANING OF “MYTH” IN THE AMERICAN CONTEXT. For a long time I avoided using the word myth because it means so many different things to different people. Academic experts on myth debate heatedly about what a myth is and how it functions in human life. Your Favorite Place Uva? In fact, with so many conflicting meanings and so much debate, some scholars have declared the word meaningless and abandoned it altogether. But I have decided to write about myth because no other single word captures this absolutely essential aspect of our society, or any society. As I understand the term and use it here, a myth has several basic qualities. First, it is a a story, told either explicitly or implicitly. Second, when a myth works or is alive — that is, when some group of people accept it as valid and meaningful — it provokes a powerful response from those people because it relies on vivid, evocative symbols to tell the tale. When words or images function as symbols they affect us both intellectually and emotionally, both consciously and unconsciously. They communicate several different, often divergent, sometimes even contradictory, meanings simultaneously.
That’s why they evoke such a strong response. When many symbols are woven together in a myth they evoke even stronger response. Third, a living myth expresses something fundamental about the worldview, values, and lifestyle of the people who accept it. A myth communicates what they assume to be true about: how the world and human life really is (their worldview) how people should live in the world (their values) how people do in fact live in the world (their lifestyle) how their worldview, values, and lifestyle ideally fit together. Persuasion Austen Essays? A myth says, in effect, “we live (or ought to favorite to get lost live) the way we do because the world is the way it is. And because the world is the modern technology addiction, way it is, living as we do (or ought to) is uniquely satisfying and discuss your favorite lost uva fulfilling.” (This formulation comes from the on character, prominent anthropologist Clifford Geertz.) Fourth, a living myth gives the discuss favorite place uva, people who accept it a way to cope with the difficulties of life. when a myth is working, it creates an idealized picture of education, whatever aspects of life it talks about. Discuss To Get Lost Essay Uva? It gives an on character impression of human life and the world as relatively coherent, harmonious, sensible, and therefore meaningful, so that life seems worth living. Sometimes a myth denies that there is any conflict or contradiction in the world. Sometimes it accepts but explains conflicts, contradictions, and the suffering they cause.
Sometimes it offers no explanation at all but gives a powerful sense that life is good and worthwhile despite the conflicts, the discuss place lost essay uva, contradictions, and the suffering. When people compare (consciously or unconsciously) a myth’s idealized image with the empirical reality of their lives, they can easily ignore much of the reality, hold on to the ideal instead, and in essays education that way find great intellectual as well as emotional satisfaction. The satisfaction comes in part from the favorite to get essay uva, conviction that, while life and essay the world are always changing, the myth is a story that seems never to change. It is always available to be retold, reenacted, relived. So the disturbing flux of the real is held in check by the bulwark of permanence — a sort of timeless present — enshrined in the myth. MYTH, LIES, AND TRUTH. In our everyday English language, myth means a fiction or a lie.
Some myths are total fictions. Discuss Favorite Essay? Though they can have powerful influence on a society, they can also be debunked by modern fact, which places some limit (at least in theory) on their influence. The myths that affect us most, in your lost uva theory and usually in fact, are those that blend empirical truth with fiction. The more truth they contain, the more convincing they are, the essays on character, harder they are to refute, and discuss your place uva therefore the more influence they have. However empirical truth or falsehood is master's application not the most crucial question when it comes to myth. As the definition above indicates, a myth communicates some very real truths to place to get lost the people who accept it as a living myth. This is the sense in which most historians of religion have come to use the term. They say that myth has its own truth, a different kind of truth than science offers.
The people who tell a myth do not judge it by education whether it can be proven factually true, either. Rather, the myth is a sort of lens through which they see the world. It tells them what they can accept as factually true and what they must consider false. It tells them what to favorite to get lost uva pay attention to addiction essay and what to ignore. It tells them how to interpret their experiences. In all these way, myth shapes their view of truth.
To modern interpreters, myth is your favorite to get essay symbolic, not literal, truth. We don’t judge a myth the way we judge a geometry proof or a financial report, by its literal accuracy. Rather, we judge it the research environmental, way we judge a poem or a painting, by its power to move us emotionally; to discuss your place lost essay uva challenge or reassure us intellectually; to shape, reshape, or reaffirm the submission, way we experience the world. But what about the relation between myth and discuss favorite essay uva empirical or scientific fact? Most often a myth is compounded of both fiction and empirically verifiable fact. (Zeus, for example, does not really throw lightning bolts down from persuasion austen essays Mt.
Olympus, but powerful thunderstorms do regularly form on that particular mountaintop, generating plenty of very real lightning that strikes the earth.) Myths may generally have more fiction than fact, but sometimes the fact outweighs the fiction. There are even (perhaps rare) occasions when myths are completely factually true. American myths have been and still are nearly all influenced by the rationalist culture of the Enlightenment. So they usually have a larger component of truth than the myths of ancient cultures. Our national myths draw on to get lost uva empirical facts from all aspects of public life — political, economic, cultural, moral, and more — and create a complex interplay among them, creating a sense of the nation and its life as a unified, harmonious whole.
(Note: speaking mythically, an American is anyone who identifies (or has identified) as a member of the United States community in application political, social, and/or cultural terms. This usage may offend inhabitants of discuss favorite place uva, other Western hemisphere lands who, quite understandably, resent seeing the United States take sole possession of the term “American.” However as a mythic reality the term as defined here has such a long history and so much global impact that it deserves this special usage. Application Essay? Similarly, speaking mythically, “American” describes anything that is imagined to be uniquely or particularly characteristic of discuss your favorite place to get lost essay uva, mythic America.) To achieve the most satisfying sense of wholeness, though, a myth must reshape the elements of application essay, empirical truth contained in it. It exaggerates empirical truths that fit an idealized image while downplaying or ignoring those that might contradict the received ideal. Discuss Favorite Place To Get Lost? It exaggerates truths that are most likely to evoke emotional response while downplaying or ignoring less evocative truths.
It turns literal truths into on character education vehicles for symbolic meaning. Thus it creates a caricature of truth, a picture that is your place to get lost uva oversimplified, schematized, and therefore easier to grasp and respond to. Consider, for example, two classic American myths: the master's application essay, Pilgrims and Rosa Parks. Both stories, as told in elementary schools and known by most Americans, include elements of both fact and discuss place lost essay uva fiction. The Pilgrims’ economic status and motives are typically marginalized in or banished from the story, as are their internal disputes, while their religious commitments and desire for religious freedom take center stage. Similarly, Rosa Parks’ age and her socioeconomic status get center stage, while her careful training for civil disobedience and technology addiction essay her (and her husband’s) very active work in the NAACP for your place to get essay years preceding her day of fame are largely forgotten.
Ultimately, though, when a myth is working its factual truth is irrelevant, because the people for whom a myth is alive do not judge it by whether it can be proven factually true. Rather, the myth is the lens through which they see the world and judge what is true and false. Log For? So it shapes their view of truth. It tells them what they can accept as factually true and what they must consider false. A living myth is what “everyone knows.” therefore it is not subject to lost essay interrogation, much less debate; it is, rather, the foundation for addiction debate, the set of premises shared by all sides. Consider again the Pilgrims and discuss your place essay uva Parks.
Both are emotionally powerful stories, made up of symbolic details that are readily and vividly visualized, and both communicate similar messages: People from all over the world come to America because here victims of injustice can and should stand up for their rights. Oxford Thesis Submission? if they are courageous enough, they can find a new kind of freedom unavailable anywhere else in the world. What happens if people suffering from favorite to get uva injustice in other lands come to America, stand up for their rights, find themselves receiving no justice, and return to their native lands, perhaps even finding relatively more justice there? Or, if America is papers ethics their native land, what happens if they give up the discuss your lost uva, fight and accept a life of persuasion austen essays, injustice? For a majority of Americans, who hold the Pilgrims and Rosa Parks stories as living myths, there are two possibilities: 1. Explain the your favorite to get, anomalous events in austen essays terms of the myth: “They weren’t as courageous as the Pilgrims or Rosa Parks. They didn’t try hard enough. Or they didn’t go about discuss favorite place essay uva it in the right way, the way charted by the Pilgrims and Parks. Or they didn’t recognize and austen essays understand the kind of justice America offered them. ” 2. Simply ignore the your favorite place to get essay uva, anomalous events altogether. It is hard for most of us even to name people who actively tried to get more justice in the United States but failed in the long run. Their stories are rarely told, because the prevailing myths simply won’t allow them to be treated as real events.
Something similar happened in 2003, when the prevailing myth insisted that Iraq, under Saddam Hussein, was building up a threatening arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Master's Application Essay? All the factual evidence to the contrary was largely ignored by the mass media because the myth did not allow that evidence to place to get uva count as true fact. Even the most respected mass media sources refused to admit facts contrary to the myth. Eventually they recanted and apologized. On Character? But this was not simply because enough facts piled up to make the myth untenable. Myths can stay alive in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Rather, they recanted the WMD claim after the defeat of Saddam’s army, when Iraq no longer seemed to present any kind of threat. In effect, those highly respected news sources were admitting that the old myth of “dangerous Saddam” no longer worked, so new facts could now be “discovered.” EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT MYTHS. Nearly every definition of myth begins with the statement that a myth is a story.
Classic myths do almost always have a narrative form. They often begin with “Once upon a time.” Many American myths have this classic narrative form too: “Once upon place to get lost essay, a time there was a group of people in England called Pilgrims”; “Once upon a time there was an essays African-American woman named Rosa Parks.” From there the stories unfold in simple narrative fashion. These are what scholars call explicit myths. But one need not recite the your favorite, whole myth to communicate its full meaning and power, because every myth is made up of many discrete elements or component pieces. These building blocks are usually words or visual images or a combination of the two.
But any sensory stimulus can play this role. In American myth, it might be the first six notes of “the Star-Spangled Banner” or the first four notes of “America the Beautiful,” a hand placed over the heart or a body pulled to rigid attention as these notes are sounded, the taste of a hamburger or hot dog with all the fixings, the smell of a fresh apple or blueberry pie, the sound of firecrackers booming on technology the Fourth of July. All of these can serve as symbols, which are combined into favorite place to get lost themes, memes, and motifs. These are the research papers environmental ethics, building blocks of myth. For those who know a myth, any component piece of it can easily communicate the cognitive and emotional meaning of the whole. The two words “Plymouth Rock,” all by themselves, or a photo of the rock, will conjure up for your place essay uva most Americans the modern technology, whole mythic tale of the Pilgrims. The two words “Rosa Parks,” or a photo of an elderly black woman sitting in discuss favorite to get essay the front of a bus surrounded by white people. will conjure up for most Americans the whole mythic tale of the Montgomery bus boycott. In such cases, when an entire myth is implied by one small piece of it, scholars call it an implicit myth. The same process can work with more abstract mythic stories too.
If a speaker refers to “government of the people, by the people, and for persuasion jane the people,” anyone even slightly familiar with American myths will immediately conjure up the whole story of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln’s role as mythic leader, the mythic links between the Gettysburg Address and the Declaration of Independence — and your favorite place essay uva therefore between the research, Civil War and the Revolutionary War, between Lincoln and George Washington — and on and on. In fact, every one of the specific components of each American myth is ultimately connected to all the to get essay uva, other building blocks of all other American myths in a network of application, implied connections that is virtually endless. Your Favorite Place To Get Lost? A group of interlocking myths can conveniently be called a mythology. Words like progress , exceptionalism , abundance , and millennialism , for example, each conjure up an entire complex mythology. This is not to say that there is thesis a single overarching or undergirding “monomyth.” Rather, there is a vast web of myths, mythologies, and mythic motifs, sometimes explicitly presented and sometimes only implied. This web in its totality forms a reservoir of national myths that myth-makers and myth-tellers can draw on in mix-and-match fashion. To call them “national” does not mean that everyone in discuss your favorite to get essay the nation embraces or affirms all of them. Rather, they are “national” in the sense that their messages speak (explicitly or implicitly) about the meaning of America, the relations of individuals and groups to the nation, and the nation’s role in the world. Typically the full stories remain only implied, in such a deep or unconscious way that few of us could reconstruct them in their complete narrative form.
Nevertheless, even a few mythic building blocks put together in almost any way can reinforce the power of the master's application essay, national myths to your to get essay uva shape our perceptions and understandings of the oxford thesis, meaning of America, our place in it, and its place in the world. NATIONAL MYTHS AND NATIONAL IDENTITY. The national myths have such power largely because they draw together so many facets of Americans’ experience and forge from them an idealized sense of a unified, organic whole; they make it seem that the pieces of the national puzzle all fit together. Each myth helps to discuss your place to get lost create a sense of national identity, defining what it means to be an American. Essays Education? Each expresses something essential about the identity of the nation and its members, as many of them see it. When Americans share in to get uva the repetition of their myths, they create or reaffirm their connection with each other and their difference from other people who have other myths. Myth is like a social cement used to bond a group together and to build a wall between them and other groups — which is one reason national myths evoke such powerful emotion and satisfaction, Again, to be sure, not all Americans embrace every American myth, nor do all find the same meanings and oxford submission values in any particular myth.
On the contrary, there is always vigorous discussion and disagreement about those meanings and values. Discuss Your Place Lost Essay? Much of the debate about specific policy issues is, at the deepest level, debate about myths and/or the modern technology addiction, meanings of myths. Different interpretations are inevitable, because myths and their component parts communicate symbolic meanings. So they tend to be multivalent; that is, any given myth, or any specific element within a myth, is likely to express different and often conflicting meanings simultaneously. Essay Uva? The richer, more potent, and more fundamental the myth, the more multivalent it is likely to be. Consider, for example, a statement as basic as “America is the modern, land of the free.” This mythological axiom is used to justify both lower and higher tax rates on the rich; both more and less governmental regulation of favorite essay uva, land, labor, etc.; both more and less restriction on immigration and undocumented immigrants; and on and on. Papers Ethics? Could anyone ever catalogue all the interpretations that have been assigned to those few words, much less predict all the discuss favorite place lost uva, interpretations that will arise in the future?
The full network of American myths, taken as a whole, is like a playing field on which conflicts over essay, public issues and public meanings are constantly fought out. The component elements of the your place to get, myths are also the assignment, materials with which the conflict is fought or, one might say, the pieces with which the game is played. Since the meanings of myths are always being contested, they are always open to change. There was a time, for example (in fact a very long time) when the idea of America as “a Christian nation” was taken for granted as an essential part of the nation’s mythic heritage. Now, of course, it is your favorite place a hotly contested assertion. But such major changes in myths happen very slowly. At any given moment, there is a relatively fixed set of essays education, American myths — basic assumptions that lay out the boundaries of acceptable discussion, the rules of the game.
In that sense the your place to get essay, web of myths functions like a language. It sets limits to master's essay what can be said meaningfully in national debates on any issue. Just as an English speaker cannot say, “This man who has hair is bald,” so anyone who knows the rules of favorite lost essay uva, American myth cannot say, “America is the master's essay, land that denies individuals opportunity,” or “In America some people are chosen by God to rule over the rest of discuss your place lost uva, us.” Such statements are simply illegitimate or out of bounds. Technology Addiction? They carry no meaning within the rules of traditional American mythology (although they could become legitimate and meaningful if a new set of discuss your essay, myths ever come to dominate American life). To be an American is to understand the nation’s mythological playing field, to know its materials and rules, to be able to use the myths effectively, to technology essay be able to combine and recombine the constituent elements of the national myths in ways that count as meaningful. In America (as in any other nation), to your place to get know the ethics, difference between meaningful and meaningless statements, as defined by the nation’s myths, is one of the key markers of national identity. WHO MAKES THE MYTHS?
Do ordinary Americans really have the power to your place to get uva work creatively with their myths? Can they innovate new variants on education the national myths, new interpretations, or even whole new myths of their own? Do they not merely repeat what they have been fed by elite leaders and discuss your place to get lost essay uva the mass media? And are the mass media themselves not merely creating myths at essays the bidding of the elite leaders who control them? To be sure, there is some truth in this view. Your Place To Get? Wealthy white Protestant men have historically had more control than anyone else over America’s myths. Though they are gradually having to share that control more and more with women, people of color, and adherents of other religions (and no religious commitment at all), there is still an thesis submission imbalance of power when it comes to controlling the myths. Nearly all Americans, nearly all of the discuss your to get lost essay uva, time, draw on the elements of the national myths when they feel moved to create words, actions, or images dealing with America, its role in the world, and what it means to be an American. (Presumably their thinking is constructed out of persuasion jane essays, these mythic building blocks too, though we can never know that for sure since we cannot read other people’s minds.) So the choices of voters and audience are constrained by the prevailing myths to a considerable degree. Americans are being deeply influenced — though most may not know it — by the legacy and continuing disproportionate influence of wealthy white men. But scholars who study myths in discuss favorite essay uva small communities usually discover that no one person or group of master's, people is ever in full control of the myths. There are often people officially charged with reciting myths; they are akin to favorite to get uva our own elite leaders and essays mass media journalists.
Yet close observation reveals all sorts of pressures coming from all sorts of places that lead the official myth-tellers to change their stories, even if ever so slightly, over discuss favorite to get uva, time. The change reflects a constant, often subtle and even unconscious, process of negotiation between the myth-tellers and the other members of the society as well as all the other forces impinging on the society’s life. In a nation of over 300 million people the oxford thesis, process must be far more complex. Elite political leaders and discuss your favorite lost essay uva the mass media must respond to the demands that each makes on jane austen essays the other, for example. Discuss Your To Get Lost Uva? And both must respond to the demands of wealthy capitalists. Research Environmental Ethics? Within each elite group there are (sometimes fierce) debates about your favorite place to get lost policy. And these conflicting policy views are ultimately shaped by conflicting view about which myths should take priority and how they should be interpreted. There is rarely any monolithic opinion among the “power elite.” Moreover, elite capitalist leaders must respond to the demands of consumers as well as investors, suppliers, political leaders, and the mass media. On Character Education? Political leaders must respond to some degree to favorite place to get lost essay the will (or whims) of the thesis submission, voters. the mass media must respond to the will (or whims) of the your place lost, audience, too. Elites and the media plant seeds, but the prevailing myths are the ground that makes them grow — the common people’s assumptions, which allow those seeds to be accepted as true and meaningful.
As I have listened to the voices of Americans across the political and educational spectrum, I have heard them draw very heavily on the common stock of mythic building blocks, sometimes in master's what sounds like rote repetition. But I’ve also heard them — even the most conservative, even the your essay, least educated — put those building blocks together in log for their own way and sometimes add pieces that are not part of the discuss favorite to get lost, general stock of myths at all. So American myths are never fully in anyone’s control. Myths are constantly being renegotiated because every American affects the myths and their changing shapes to master's application some degree. We all live in the web of discuss favorite place uva, multivalent mythic meanings, which creates a field of conflicting interpretations and conflicting views on public issues at students every level. All of the debates that shape public life — debates about economic policy, foreign policy, the environment, social behavior, and so much else — are, at the deepest level, debates about national myths and the interpretation of those myths. Leave a Comment Here Cancel reply. Thank you so much Professor Chernus for this wonderfully inspiring article! I actually study myth at the graduate level, and plan to continue work, specifically on American myth, after graduation in April 2013.
I study Carl Jung’s archetypal psychology, mostly in its application to literary material, however my Bachelor’s degree is in American Studies with minors in political science, English, and philosophy. I will continue to visit this site. its the brainstorming word. Our myths, our stories, as you point out, is your place to get lost uva all we have to explain our existence. However there might be an unrecognized notion here that is missed. On Character? Here is the quote that set me to view myths from a somewhat different perspective.
“. . . Every culture therefore lives by discuss to get lost essay myth. Or, if the culture remains mostly unconscious, the culture is lived by its myth. Assignment Log For Students? This latter is the case in all primitive and most modern cultures. Their myths go unidentified because they are considered to be ‘truths,’ ‘self-evident facts,’ ‘scientific facts,’ ‘common sense,’ ‘universal values,’ or are quite unconscious.” Gerald H. Slusser, in his essay “Jung and Whitehead On Self and Divine, The Necessity for Symbol and Myth,” found in the book “Archetypal Process, Self and Divine in Whitehead, Jung and Hillman.” Please note the quote refers to a “culture.” And, that a culture unconscious of its myth, or myths is your place to get lost essay “lived by its myth.” I believe that this is the case regarding the “American Myth or Myths” you write about.
When I first read the Slusser passage I asked myself “well what myth is jane essays living this(the American) culture? Instantly the discuss your to get uva, answer appeared – “The myth of the Chosen People.” I must tell you that I see this idea lurking, as it were, hidden, in much of your writing. Thanks for master's essay your thoughtful comments. Discuss Favorite Place To Get Lost Uva? There is so much about American myth that I did not cover in my essays. I would never claim to application essay have said everything that needs to be said. My whole project aims mainly to get people thinking about the subject and adding their own ideas, as you do.
So for you at discuss lost least, it worked! You are certainly right that the on character, Chosen People theme has played an important role in your favorite lost mythic America since the assignment log for students, first white people showed up here, with a gun in one hand and a Bible in the other. Discuss To Get Lost? Today we are more likely to hear phrases like “the one indispensable nation,” but we can hear the “the chosen people” echoing clearly in those contemporary words. One point to note: Though “the chosen people” is often taken as a reference to Judaism (where the research ethics, term certainly has a rich history), for the early white Protestants in North America it referred to the Christian. Many of them (especially,but not only, the Puritans) thought of themselves as “the New Israel.” That term could refer to both the discuss your place lost uva, (white) people and to the place — America as God’s “chosen land” or “promised land” — another notion that still echoes loudly in American public discourse today. The notion of “The Chosen People” was “taken over” by Christianity sometime around the 4th Century via “supersessionism,” see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersessionism Clifford Longley has written a book titled “The Chosen People” which traces the addiction essay, concept through English and American history. Here is review of the book: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=7089.
Thought this comment was applicable. On the day that Edward Bernays sold his insights to munitions makers ever-eager for easy profits, to imperialist corporations seeking new markets to dominate, and unscrupulous politicians at lost the beck and call of the former two, we began the transformation from education a once proud republic into discuss to get essay just another decadent empire. Via yellow journalism, early films, and pioneering radio the above unholy triad invaded and colonized the minds of papers, millions of Americans and hijacked through tribal, jingoistic appeals the discuss your uva, public’s common sense, its decency, its humanity, and essays on character education its decision-making centers. Therein lies the value of manipulative propaganda. Over the discuss favorite place uva, decades, the above interest groups have merely refined their techniques, and in jane essays addition to discuss place (or rather with the assistance of) the log for students, above media have employed public and favorite lost economic policy to implement a worldview, a narrative where all is good when “we, the People” (note how via language they’ve _hijacked us_ into appearing to be the main actor/decision-makers of their follies!) do it as “it spreads benevolent democracy and freedom” abroad… Ah, the national fugue state!
We have a lot of bad/false history to unlearn, a lot of embedded Bernaysian narratives to cast out and plain old Pavlovian conditioning to modern acknowledge and overcome. Those who don’t will continue to embrace, and your favorite to get lost uva defend, the suicidal jingoistic narrative, docilely line-up at recruitment stations, don a uniform and proceed to go to papers environmental ethics foreign lands to kill and die…
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“Obasan” by Joy Kogawa Essay Sample. “Obasan” by Joy Kogawa is a novel telling the story of Naomi Nakane, a Japanese Canadian, during the Japanese Internment in your essay British Columbia during the war in the 1940’s. This story tells us of the hardships that these people have experienced during those trying times and how it has affected the different aspects of their lives. The book tells a compelling story of life under discriminating circumstances that the government they are under impose upon them. Students. It relates to us experiences of people who are in a situation whose exists as not part of the whole but at the same time are not considered as part of their community. This paper aims to your place to get lost uva, explore the circumstances of assignment students, Naomi’s identity as a Japanese Canadian during times of discuss favorite to get, war and discrimination and how it affected her search for identity and reason.
The novel combined documented history and a collection of essay, personal experiences to better explain the situation that the Japanese Canadians had to experience. Discuss Favorite To Get Essay Uva. It is both a recollection and historic review of the jane, events that happened in your favorite to get uva British Columbia during the addiction essay, time that they had considered them as threats to national security and thus action taken against them changed to become cruel and oppressive. Those who suffered during this time had the problem of not being heard, of an discuss to get lost uva, enduring “wordlessness”, that is both chosen and inflicted. The novel explores the existence of a collective memory and citizenship in the Japanese Canadian society whose foundations lie in their citizenships: that of Japanese and that of Canadian. These two cultures were made to have been reconciled in jane austen the story where this hybrid citizenship caused them to suffer. They have become different and were considered as “others” in your to get uva the country because they were living in a place and modern era where one side of their citizenship was at conflict with each other. This can be seen both in the internal conflicts that happen within Naomi where she was struggling to make sense of both cultures within her and the social environment she was enduring during that time. She lived during the World War II where Japanese was at war with the western world. Her Japanese heritage was seen as a threat by her Canadian society where she eventually finds herself lost since and discuss to get lost uva confused since she has become a foreigner in application essay her own country since they began to treat those who were like her differently. Naomi Nakane is of Japanese Canadian Nationality.
She lived together with her family away from Japan in the British Columbian territories. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, an event that started the war, it resulted in a change in discuss favorite to get essay uva the way that the people around them viewed them. They began to be seen as enemies that need to be treated with caution and separated from the rest of the society. They were seen as threats that need to education, be suppressed lest the rest of the society become endangered. Thus they were relocated and favorite place lost uva transferred in the governmental guise of master's, “protection” and their own imposed “volunteerism”. They were discriminated against by the government taking away their properties and lost uva forced to persuasion austen, work in labor camps under difficult living conditions where they had to work in order to just get by. Those who were sick were left to discuss to get lost essay, die in the camps.
Those who were unable to work were separated and jane imprisoned in the different areas. One of the your to get essay uva, great conflicts in essays the novel is found in the concept of dual citizenship of the to get uva, main characters of the story. The culture of Japanese and Canadian are in conflict within the persuasion jane austen essays, main characters and she attempts to your place to get essay, understand and reconcile both. A theme in the novel discusses the silence of research environmental ethics, those who have the same heritage as her as seen in her obasan and the vocal self assertion shown by her aunt. She eventually viewed this as one of the main difference of the two cultures. This gave a perspective into both cultures where most of the Japanese Canadian citizens in discuss your lost essay her stories were silent while there are those who like the western culture that they have assimilated into their own were more vocal and self assertive. In this way we see that Naomi was a combination of oxford submission, both sides where she uses her silence to better understand the discuss your favorite to get lost uva, situation she endures through her observation of the different instances that she finds herself in. On the other hand she also embraces the addiction, vocal as she converses and explores with other people their interpretation of their situation. She realizes that somehow the current situation that they were experiencing was brought about by place essay their culture’s silence.
The disabling silence was compared to victimized animals who choose to be silence because they were distrustful of the others, especially those who are in power. Their silence is a means of protection against the possible conflicts and repercussions that they might be drawing upon technology essay, themselves. Discuss Favorite Essay. As the novel progresses, Naomi becomes more conscious of the language that she was using and the effect it eventually has over the people. Silence in the novel also shows shame and papers trauma directed towards their history. The novel shows that silence cannot be the answer since it only discuss your favorite place uva, hides the past where it is nurtured and made to essay, grow. The use of being vocal prevents people from discuss to get lost uva, being ignorant and fearful since it is a channel for understanding. Throughout the novel we will see that there are various questions that are asked by persuasion jane austen the different characters only to find them unanswered. These unanswered questions continue to be asked throughout the story. It continues to follow them until eventually the answers become clear. The realization in the novel that questions will continue to haunt them no matter how much they run away from them is apparent throughout the novel.
We will also see that the silence of not answering questions prevents actions that eventually bring about regret and misunderstandings. Only through looking for answers can one truly find reconciliation to the unanswered questions and the situation that they find themselves in. Naomi realizes when she was young that “death means to stop” (Kogawa). Your Favorite Place To Get Lost Essay Uva. This was shown again as she realizes that the Japanese word for on character education “lost” is also the discuss favorite place lost essay, same word to describe death. She realizes that an end to something also means death.
Her mother died when she stopped protecting them, her father died when he stopped responding to the letters. This, combine it with Kogawa’s use of the concept of bone could signify that there is a core, an essential part, a substance that lasts even thought it becomes non-existent. The novel shows this by her understanding that “for a child there is no presence without flesh” but she realizes that this is not the case especially since she realizes that there are other things or other meanings hidden beneath the events that are happening. This part of the novel also shows a change in oxford Naomi as she begins to become mature where her ability to better understand the discuss favorite to get lost uva, situations that the Japanese Canadian people are suffering. The concept of jane, a core or a hidden truth can again be seen in the part where Emily and discuss to get lost uva Naomi were digging up bones. This signifies that they were also digging up the oxford thesis submission, “truth” or a bigger, deeper understanding of their current situation. They have found that the discuss your favorite place to get lost uva, Japanese Canadians were since been treated as “a mass of buried bones” by the society that they were living in. Persuasion. This gives the bones another symbolism and that the Japanese Canadian population during the time of the internment was bones that were “buried” or hidden from view and thought of to get lost essay uva, not being important, useless and feared. It becomes a symbolism to environmental, the readers that the concept and discuss your favorite to get essay the lives of the living Japanese Canadian people during this time has become the same as the view of papers, bones. That their concept has become flesh and the truth propagated has become “flesh”. (Shoenut) Language in the novel is used as a weapon to hide the discuss your favorite place to get uva, real situation of the Japanese Canadian population by research papers environmental ethics the individuals in position.
Naomi was taught this by discuss your favorite place to get lost essay uva her aunt Emily when they explored news and documents that show that the government is lying about the real state of the log for students, Japanese Canadian Community. The purpose of which is to hide their real circumstances of these people and to legitimize and rationalize their action towards them. It also makes for easier implementation without the discuss your place essay uva, risk of conflict coming from the population who do not agree with their actions. This led Naomi to persuasion, become critical and more vocal about their state of discuss place lost uva, living where she realizes that history was not truth rather it is an interpretation of certain events and activities that are happening around them. Those who are giving the jane austen, interpretations are those who are in discuss favorite lost essay power and thus the voices of the minorities are not being heard or at least even presented.
Her Japanese Canadian descent became the reason for this realization where she eventually turns to technology addiction essay, become critical of the historical accounts. This then pushed her to understand history should not be taken as truth but should be taken as literature that needs to be deconstructed in order to find the truth hidden within truth. Language in the novel also plays a significant role in lost essay uva the understanding of the concept of austen, identity of the discuss favorite place to get, Japanese Canadian people. It stands as a part of their identities where its destruction also means the destruction of their heritage. The novel shows a fragmentation of their language and culture where it says that the Japanese Canadian language is fragmented into three parts, “part Japanese, part English, part Sasquatch”. This shows one of the central themes of the novel and that which is the search of the Japanese Canadian identity. Their culture and society is fragmented since their society is based on persuasion jane austen two very different cultures.
It becomes difficult for favorite place lost uva them to situate themselves since they have become confused about their collective identity. Their separation was also symbolic of this fragmentation shown where their family was divided and thesis separated. This becomes a greater problem when the society that they are living in continues to fragment the different aspects of their identity. This eats away their ability for solidarity that they need to exhibit especially the lost essay uva, growing turbulent times of the novel. They were compared to submission, the stone that are chiseled away and become “fragments of discuss your favorite to get lost essay uva, fragments”. This eventually implies the fear that they be reduced into nothing if they do not find for themselves a protection from the oxford submission, continued fragmentation of their culture and identities that will help them keep their bonds together. This becomes a bigger issue during the start of the war and the imposition of the internment. (Grice) (Shoenut)
During the Japanese Canadian Internment, the Japanese Canadian population was no longer considered a part of the society. They were looked upon as enemies and they were treated as such. They were forced to work for cheap labor, those who are no longer able to work are imprisoned, those who were sick were left to die, they were deprived of some of their freedom and their properties were confiscated by the government. They also lost the protection of the government and the justice system and your favorite to get lost they have also experienced many other injustices in the hands of those who consider them as the “others”. Many families were also separated from each other including the family of Naomi. During this time they also suffered severe discrimination since it was widely spread that the Japanese were the ones who started the war. They were considered as evil and persuasion jane essays bad and this further created a gap between Japanese Canadians and the “others” who constitute the majority of the population of the country. This pushed many of the Japanese Canadian populations, including Naomi’s brother, to lost uva, embrace western culture and forget their Japanese roots in order to find protection from discrimination and abuse. (Shoenut)
The Naomi towards the end of the novel professes her loyalty to Canada saying that she is a citizen of Canada. That her loyalties lie with her and thesis submission that she is part of the great country even thought it its people and its government has turned its back against them despite their having to endure continued to discuss lost essay uva, suffering during those times, she was still willing to forgiving them for the things that they have done to them and essays on character education also hopeful at the same time that one day they would be able to return to the country’s loving embrace no longer discriminated and hated but as a members of their society. Naomi, being of Japanese Canadian descent, is faced with a difficult situation regarding the question of her identity. She was living in a world that does not consider them part of their society. It becomes clear however, that during the times of suffering, her hope has still not gone out. Her loyalty and love towards Canada are unwavering even after all the things that they have gone through. The novel is a kind of semi-autobiography of the author and her experiences during the difficult times she and her fellow Japanese Canadians faced. Her work reflected her views during those times. The idea of Naomi being a hybrid figure did not create a new cultural entity of its own in the novel though it did serve as a powerful tool for the reconciliation of her past and of her present. To Get. She viewed her past as necessary occurrences without which she would not have a clear understanding of her own identity.
She understood that her past, pertaining to her traditional Japanese roots, is part of submission, her present and she chose the Canada. Through the analysis of the novel we will see that the your place to get lost, suffering that she had to endure came from the existence of mixed blood within her but she was already loyal to Canada thus there is little to say that her hybridity has become her own cultural entity. This rather shows that her hybridity is simply an oxford, obstacle to overcome if she wanted to become accepted as a citizen of the country that she loved. (Shoenut) The silent ways of obasan and the mastery of speech as shown by Aunt Emily show the difference that both cultures react to their environments. The silence shows guard and protection while mastery of speech shows liberation and freedom.
It shows a problematic middle ground that need to be overcome. Grice, Helena. “Reading the Nonverbal: The Indices of Space, Time, Tactility and discuss your place to get Taciturnity in Joy Kogawa’s Obasan.” MELUS (1999): 93. Kogawa, Joy. Obasan. New York: Random House, Inc., 1981. Shoenut, Meredith L. “”I am Canadian”: Truth of Citizenship in Joy Kogawa’s Obasan.” American Review of Canadian Studies (2006): 478-497. Is this the research papers, perfect essay for you? Save time and order “Obasan” by Joy Kogawa.
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Orwell#8217;s 1984: Privacy Issues and Public Manipulation. The links related to privacy issues taught me all of the negative things that come along with modern technology and social websites. In Tom Head’s Big Brother is Watching , he says that “as technology improves, privacy as we know it will inevitably evaporate; the best we can hope for is the power to watch the watchers.” By this he means that with the advancement of technology comes the decline of individual privacy. This holds true in my opinion, because I believe that the use of your favorite lost uva, modern technology is linked to the decline is personal relations, and the decline of personal relationships is linked to the weakening value associated with privacy. There are other ways that privacy is currently invaded other than the use of social media sites.
For starters, the CIFA has previously “exceeded its authority and conducted unauthorized spying on innocent people and organizations,” (The Other Big Brother). They have even acknowledged that some reports may contain information on U.S. citizens and groups that “never should have been obtained.” Also, this same source states that the National Security Agency to monitor telephone conversations in papers the U.S. Place To Get Lost Essay Uva? It has been proven, according to this source, that CIFA’s database has contained information that “may have violated regulations,” because the department isn’t allowed to retain information about modern technology, citizens for more than 90 days unless there is a reasonable belief that the person is linked to terrorism or foreign intelligence. This regulation has been violated. Also in use are video surveillance, face recognition software, GPS tracking, all of which go beyond the human eye and the evidence these technologies hold leaves an favorite essay, unsettling feeling to potential “victims,” (Tana Ganeva, Massive New Biometric Database ). Modern Essay? The links related to public manipulation showed me that things aren’t always as they seem. There was one link that confirmed that the portrait of Abraham Lincoln was actually Lincoln’s head painted atop of discuss favorite place to get lost essay uva, John Calhoun’s body.
The link “Orwell and addiction essay, March Madness” talked about an advertisement stating that African-American male student athletes are 10% more likely to favorite lost essay graduate. A comparison of college basketball players with other full-time student proves otherwise—that the athletes were 20% less likely to graduate than non-athletes. This link, (Orwell and March Madness) directly reminded me of the scene in 1984 where Winston overhears the essays, telescreen state that the chocolate rations had been raised to 20g when he knew for place to get a fact that the rations had just been dropped to 20g from 30g. Modern Addiction? In Oceania, the people believe whatever Big Brother tells them to believe. Discuss Place Lost Uva? If the austen essays, telescreen says rations of goods have been raised, then they have been raised. If the telescreen says that conditions today are better than the conditions of the past, it is truth. If the telescreen reports that they are at war with Eurasia, they have always been at war with Eurasia and Eastasia has always been their allied country. The people of Oceania are constantly manipulated by their government to discuss your to get lost believe that Big Brother is their provider, protector, and thesis submission, savior. Discuss Favorite To Get Essay? Either they mask their realization and pretend to believe in the Party, they really don’t realize that they’re being manipulated, or they are punished and tortured in the Ministry of Love like Winston is in the very end of the novel. The telescreens can always see and hear whatever is going on, both in public and private settings. There are no secrets and there is no privacy.
They have eyes and ears everywhere, in technological forms and in the form of undercover spies, like Mr. Charrington. If someone is acting or believed to be thinking suspiciously, that person is master's essay captured, tortured, and discuss your favorite place to get lost essay uva, executed, then vaporized into an imaginary non-existence. All of master's application, this happens simply because the your favorite to get lost, government, Big Brother, has some sort of inkling that one person is not thinking and behaving exactly like the rest. It could potentially be caused by nothing more than mere suspicion, suspicion that wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for the governmental spies—the Thought Police and the telescreens.
The technology of Oceania’s society is the on character education, core of its societal and moral destruction. This brings me back to Tom Head’s statement: “As technology improves, privacy as we know it will inevitably evaporate; the best we can hope for is the power to watch the watchers.” In Oceania, their technology was so advanced that the your favorite to get lost essay, people were continuously watched, leaving them no privacy. Submission? The best the people there could hope for favorite was the thesis, existence of The Brotherhood—an organization conspiring to favorite to get lost essay overthrow the unjust Big Brother—or a revolt against research environmental, Big Brother himself. Discuss Your To Get Lost? The could only hope to free themselves by watching Big Brother watch them, see what he sees in order to do what he is assignment students incapable of seeing. While George Orwell’s ideas about governmental surveillance were far-fetched at the time, and still seem over-the-top today, his underlying interpretation of the future government holds true. We are watched and your to get essay, our activities are monitored by assignment log for students, our government, though not to the severity assumed by Orwell in 1984. Researching the privacy issues and the ways our government manipulates the public opinion by use of advertisements makes me feel like I ought to be more cautious, especially when on the internet.
I have also learned that in order to know the truth behind certain ads, I ought to research that ad, not just trust it for what it is. Some may say the current state of government surveillance is minimal and discuss favorite place lost uva, doesn’t make much difference, and perhaps that is true, however, what level may it reach in the near future?
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conformity essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to discuss your place to get lost, survey the research papers environmental movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century.
This revival was an expression of discuss your favorite lost essay uva, both social and master's application, theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups. Holiness advocates disapproved of the discuss your to get essay impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to assignment students, remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of discuss favorite to get lost essay, Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for master's application, Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Discuss Your Place. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism.
This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of technology essay, pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in discuss your one of the modern addiction poorer sections of the discuss your favorite lost city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of essays on character education, Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of discuss essay uva, dignity and community denied them in assignment students the larger urban culture. 3.
From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the discuss your favorite essay uva U.S. Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of oxford submission, God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. 4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the movement itself. The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of God rather than human and discuss your essay, natural causation.
These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the master's essay Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of discuss your favorite place uva, Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the students world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight.
But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests. In the late 1960s, the your favorite place to get historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. Application. For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in place essay uva American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and technology addiction, within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of discuss favorite, Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. The establishment of the Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8.
As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the primacy of doctrine. They note the thesis submission importance of Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at place lost the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and modern technology, growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. To Get Lost Uva. With the on character ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class.
But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for place uva, these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions. 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of master's essay, Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of discuss to get essay uva, Pentecostalism and discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Modern Technology Addiction. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and discuss your place to get lost, class stratification) in log for students industrialization.
The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to your to get uva, social pressures. Log For. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history.
At the same time Wacker is critical of some of your uva, Anderson’s basic arguments. Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Thesis. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the favorite place essay uva movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of master's application, faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the supernatural. Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and discuss your lost uva, racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and papers environmental, biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions.
Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the discuss favorite essay Disciples of Christ] called the master's ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for your to get lost essay uva, frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity.
17 Pentecostals linked the austen essays sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about discuss your a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in modern addiction this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Place To Get Lost. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and on character education, opposed creeds and the formulation of doctrine. 18.
This millennial vision, according to discuss your favorite lost, James R. Modern Essay. Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of Pentecostalism by discuss your favorite lost uva locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of on character education, Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and discuss place uva, the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by submission Pentecostals.
He stresses both the Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer. 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in your to get lost the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into persuasion Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the discuss essay nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in submission the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing.
For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. Favorite To Get Lost Uva. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of environmental, Pentecostalism have argued that the discuss favorite to get Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the students finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of your favorite place to get lost essay uva, Reformed and Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view.
For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about persuasion austen these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict.
Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of your favorite to get lost uva, God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on jane, Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. Your To Get Lost. 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and perceived politics and national events to essays on character, be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress.
Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in favorite to get lost the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Addiction. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the your favorite place lost essay uva Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to modern technology essay, its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. Place To Get Uva. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the essays early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of your lost uva, Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and modern essay, the desire for revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism.
He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and your favorite place lost uva, the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Persuasion Jane. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to your to get lost uva, form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of log for, which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation.
34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35. Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of your essay, historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. The rise of application essay, Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.
Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Favorite Lost Essay Uva. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and the denigration of women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the on character education movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of to get lost essay uva, American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the addiction essay current scholarship.
There are various areas of your favorite to get uva, Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in assignment students Christ has yet to discuss favorite lost essay uva, be undertaken. Austen Essays. Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. Favorite Lost Essay. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and submission, sources from the discuss your place to get lost movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched.
37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up. Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the modern technology addiction essay laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and your favorite place to get lost uva, racial norms within Pentecostalism?
The role of women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the modern technology roles of women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and gender is favorite place uva, also an area that merits careful consideration.
A church such as the Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in papers environmental ethics the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. Discuss Favorite Place Lost. The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in papers environmental ethics the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of discuss your favorite place essay uva, Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the oxford dispossessed and marginalized.
Scholars also have been concerned with whether the discuss to get essay Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Essays On Character. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to your favorite to get uva, the Farmers’ Alliance and log for, Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the place lost essay success of master's application essay, Pentecostalism in discuss your favorite uva the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of oxford thesis, Populism in these same regions?
Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on your to get lost uva, how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for education, the origins of Pentecostalism. Before the 1970s the history of discuss place essay uva, Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to education, the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past.
1. Favorite To Get. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in on character the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of these new sects include: the discuss favorite place to get uva Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of log for students, American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of your place lost, early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the modern technology addiction Faith: The Assemblies of discuss your lost essay uva, God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing?
Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of assignment log for students, American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. Favorite Place Lost Essay Uva. McLoughlin was responding to oxford thesis submission, Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of discuss your place to get essay, American sects. Students. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. Your Uva. American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol.
II (New York and technology essay, London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. Discuss Favorite Uva. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and application essay, Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of discuss your, Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of research papers, Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78.
9. Your Place To Get Lost. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and essays on character education, New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and discuss your lost, John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an oxford thesis intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. To Get Uva. 1940): 740-741.
Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to research papers, alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in your favorite to get lost the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and essays on character, the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status. 12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the your place to get essay uva Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in austen the early Pentecostal movement and found that the discuss your favorite lost group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Modern Addiction. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of favorite essay, Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in oxford similar socio-economic circumstances.
Church of discuss your to get essay uva, God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14. Ibid., 239. R. Essays On Character Education. Laurence Moore also notes that the discuss place essay otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142.
15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at assignment log for students the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Your Favorite Place To Get Lost Essay. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.
On the importance of restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of jane, Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of discuss your favorite place to get essay, Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.
Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of research papers ethics, Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the discuss favorite lost uva Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22. Students. Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508.
23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the your favorite to get uva Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the modern technology addiction Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the discuss favorite to get lost essay Pentecostal Movement, in austen Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. Favorite Place To Get Lost Essay Uva. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148.
Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Persuasion Jane Essays. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of discuss your favorite to get lost essay, British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to persuasion jane austen essays, the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only. Favorite Place To Get Essay. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.
William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.
Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. Oxford Submission. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and discuss your favorite essay uva, Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Modern Technology Essay. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Discuss Place To Get Uva. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in modern Social Variables and discuss your place uva, Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30.
Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. On Character Education. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Discuss Your Favorite Place To Get Uva. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Research Environmental Ethics. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.
35. Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and uva, deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in master's application the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70.
38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39. Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of place essay, Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and persuasion austen, the First Wave of discuss your place essay uva, American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Master's Application. Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5.
41. On Populism and favorite lost essay, women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in on character education the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Your Lost Uva. Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. Oxford Submission. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). Essay. On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in modern technology Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. Your Favorite Lost Essay Uva. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of log for, Chicago Press, 1990). On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. Discuss Place Lost Essay Uva. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in oxford submission the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). Discuss Your Place To Get Essay. On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. On Character Education. Mr. Essay Uva. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to papers, Dr.
David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for discuss to get uva, their comments on earlier versions of this paper.