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briggs myers resume Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Is it appropriate to use Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as selling point in a personal statement? I have a personality type as indicated by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) of INTJ (introversion, intuition, thinking, judgment). Resume College? This is one of the rarest personality types, occurring in only 1-2% of the population. Eating Healthily With Essay? As Wikipedia puts it: Hallmarks of the INTJ include independence of thought and a desire for resume, efficiency. They work best when given autonomy and creative freedom.
They harbor an innate desire to express themselves by conceptualizing their own intellectual designs. They have a talent for analyzing and writing contest formulating complex theories. INTJs are generally well-suited for occupations within academia, research, consulting, management, science, engineering, and law. I am applying for a job in a research post involving engineering, and I believe the above description 'sells' me well. Resume Post? Is advertising my specific personality type in my personal statement a good or bad thing? I worry that it may come across as too much snake oil and too little substance. You shouldn't even bring it up. I'd like to know how you arrived at being INTJ. Was it a self-administered online test? That holds about as much credibility as one of those Get a degree based on high school, your experience diplomas that we all get emails for about 10 times per day. Post? Unless a test is administered by a trained psych worker in a controlled environment, they don't mean anything.
Ask a professional psychologist or psychiatrist about in social, this, and resume college they'll explain it to you (and then run, because they won't stop explaining it). Persuasive Essay Rubrics? And look at it a bit objectively, too: Do you honestly believe you can sort the world's population into 16 personality types? Heck, hang out on Workplace for resume post, a couple of days and you will see there are many more than that right here. High School Career Essay? Also, if you read the ahem descriptions of each type on these websites, you will find that all of them are positive. What would be a bad MBTI type? I'd leave it off, and I wouldn't bring it up unless asked, and post I certainly wouldn't give the appearance of giving it any credence. When I look at candidates, here's what I'm thinking: Will this person be a strong individual contributor? Do they have a history of this at previous positions or as a student? Will this person help others in our organization do more or better work?
Will this person consume more in rubrics, resources in resume post college, training and high career essay managing them than the organization can afford? (I.E. Post? they're Self-starters, have or can develop a strong awareness of the context of the business, and du conseil a good work ethic, or are they going to take an hour of individual attention every day just to keep them on task?) Will this person come with or develop in resume college, a reasonable time frame the skills and knowledge necessary to do this job? Does this person seem to be trustworthy and act with integrity? (Thank you, @Roger) Is this person someone I and other management would feel comfortable representing our organization to customers and essay contest 2009 vendors? Will this person accept the college, financial offer I am authorized to make? You show up to an interview with me with all 7 of essay school, those questions covered, and you're on resume post, the short list of candidates. I would advise against it for two reasons: The MBTI is essay not considered to be scientifically valid.
Here's one link with a brief synopsis of its history and post issues. There are many, many more out there. Why limit yourself by giving people preconceived notions of your personality by assigning you to a group? If you want to highlight your talents for high school essay, analysis, etc., do so by crafting your resume and resume cover letter to reflect those talents by showcasing specific work that you've done or things that you have studied. Since I am applying for a job in a research post involving engineering, and dissertation in social I believe the resume, above description 'sells' me well. Is 'advertising' my specific personality in my personal statement a good or bad thing?
I worry that it may come across as too much sanke oil and illinois ged essay too little substance. You are right to worry. Unless you know for sure that the target prospective employer specifically values such test results, you should not indicate your Myers-Briggs results on a personal statement, cover letter, or resume. Post? As you have indicated, many will consider it to be of eating with a busy essay, little substance at best and snake oil at worst. As a hiring manager, seeing that you apparently believe in the importance of such personality tests would be a negative for me. Other hiring managers may view it differently, but why bother risking that result? Similarly, you should not include your sign of the zodiac, your IQ, the results of resume college, a recent love quiz, the dissertation, number of pushups you can do, etc, etc. Resume? Find other ways to express your talent in your cover letter, resume, and most importantly - in your interviews. School? Describe yourself using whatever terms you think apply (including the same terms that your MBTI testing results suggest, if you like). Just be prepared to back up your assertions by college, other means.
When pitching yourself to a company, it is certainly worth explaining why your personality would be a good fit for persuasive school, the position. Resume College? However, focus on essay, yourself and your experiences, not on the results of the test. If you think it's important to specifically say I'm an INTJ, then use real-life examples to support that conclusion. Don't just say I'm an INTJ because this test told me so! It's great to understand who you are, how you work, and why that is good for the company.
You just need to post, be sure to express that in a way that is relevant to your audience. The Meyers-Briggs test is a good tool to help you understand yourself, but it means nothing to anyone else without information to back it up. I personally greatly benefited from the insights I obtained from le role constitutionnel dissertation, taking the MB test several years ago. I think MB is helpful in gaining self understanding, and the more honest you are in answering the questions to resume post, more helpful it becomes. I think MB is a great tool when used correctly. I would not, under any circumstances, bring your MB score up in any sort of job application. First off, while INTJ is said to be 2% of the population I have noticed that about 80% of people who know about MB will claim to be INTJ or ENTJ.
Because they think that's where the cool kids live. Take the MB once and it's really simple to game the test so as to put you in any one of the 16 boxes the high, next time you take it. The MB is not like an A+ certification or a PhD in Rocket Science. The measurement tool you mention doesn't matter. That's indirect. Mention instead, the things you accomplished, that the measuring stick is implying. You must have a list of things that those personality attributes, helped you do/accomplish. Post? people whose attributes might lead them to pianos, would talk about piano things they did. You should do the same. Illinois Ged Essay? Assuming you want to sell optimally, i.e. have the other person decide he needs what you're offering.
If the goal is to sell with some formula, with no regard for outcome (i.e. it doesn't matter how others process the information you're pitching). then it doesn't matter how you pitch..because you're pitching for your own goals, not the goals of college, others. 1) The internet is full of self-diagnosed INTJ's (myself included). It may be 1-2% when the test is administered correctly, but taking the test on the internet seems to end with dishonesty to onesself. Rubrics For Middle? 2) Whether it's 1%, 2% or 10% of college, people are INTJ, that means 90-99% of people are not (and without stereotyping too much, I would say that INTJs do not tend to go into illinois HR). Resumes are about giving people no reason to throw your resume in the bin (not about giving them a reason to hire you). Do not point out to 90%+ of people that you are different from them. 3) As others have mentioned, B-M are slightly more useful than star signs.
Some people will throw your resume in the bin if you take them too seriously. 4) If you are applying for a job in STEM etc, you can guarantee all the serious competition will be highly logical etc. 5) I don't think most of the world would pick management or law as thigns that INTJ are good at. They may be scientifically wrong, but that still doesn't help you get the job. Many 'tests' like this indicate preferences, rather than levels. For example, lets say that I have taken a survey that indicates that I like physical activities that involve working with others. Post College? Does that make a valid reason for me to be recruited as a basketball player? I may even state that I enjoy basketball, but the level of contest, talent in physically performing the act is unrelated to the preference. In a similar manner, many of these personality indicators are tools for thinking about how we interact with others, how we prefer to work, and how we can learn to appreciate that not everybody processes information in the same manner.
Interviewing- Situation- Tactic- Action- Results (STARS, one of the current buzzwords. ) Where have you demonstrated the ability to solve problems. Post? Explain a time when you had to work with a difficult person. Explain a situation where you had to illinois, make a decision without all of the required information. Make sure your resume indicates positions of responsibility. Things to get the resume through the resume, filters. If I were in your position, I would not list my MBTI type on my resume.
If I were the employer and I got that resume, my first thought would be this person has chosen to define themselves by putting themselves in a box. MBTI is simply a preference test; you can act like any other personality you please at any time. It just may not be as natural. Seeing someone declare their MBTI type is an essay announcement to resume, me I am uninterested in filling any role done by le role, one of the other 15 boxes. I'm proud of my box, and I'm going to stick to it! (Although this post is old, its still active) I disagree with above comments that companies don't care about your MBTI results, so I would take it off your resume. Post? It could help you, or it could hurt you depending on the company. According to the Society for Industrial and essay Organizational Psychology, 13% of resume college, US employers utilize personality assessments; 10,000 employees, 2,500 colleges, and 200 federal agencies use the dissertation in social, well-known Myers-Briggs test. Companies that use these types of post, assessments include McKinsey Company, the ged essay, CIA, the Department of resume college, State, and 89 of the Fortune 100 companies. The personality assessment industry is thriving – Myers-Briggs generates $20 million per high career essay, year in revenue; other companies that specialize in post, this area include Criteria, Wonderlic, and du conseil constitutionnel Humanmetrics.
These tests are used by the employers for a number of reasons. Post College? They are commonly used to evaluate job candidates to find the best fit for the opportunity. Screening, interviewing, and hiring applicants can be a difficult and resource-heavy process. Employers have access to relatively little information on 2009, candidates, and typically spend only a few hours with them before making offers. Any additional information on potential employees can help in college, the decision making process. Employers may also assess current employees, so they can support their individual strengths and high career essay create effective teams.
I'll take a different tack in answering this question: everybody tries to resume college, show themselves off to the hiring company. they want the career, hiring company to know them well enough to decide that they are the right person for the job. It's a strategy designed to post college, make you just like everyone else. you won't stand out no matter how different your resume reads about who you think you are, or what you've done for someone else. You'll be much better off if, instead of focusing on who you think you are, show them who you think they are, and what they need. The more you know about the company and du conseil constitutionnel about what you can do for them , you almost make it impossible for anyone else who is trying to show themselves off to resume post, compete with you. This requires research and understanding, perhaps even talking to ged essay, someone or several people who already work at the company, not something everyone is prepared to do, but if you can't do that then perhaps you don't deserve the resume post, description you've adopted for high essay, yourself. If I were you, I'd include it only in case I want to work in resume college, a company which values such things and if I believed in writing 2009, it . What you include in resume, your CV and eating healthily with a busy lifestyle essay how you include it tells much about your values. Post College? My company (not my own, the company I work for) always begins with evaluation how well are the candidate's values aligned with the company's, even before checking skills and experience. Since we believe that every single employee is responsible for the company image and its success, we certainly want to avoid some patterns that may harm the company's image or performance. Essay Writing Contest? In our case, icluding your MBTI result may be understood like 'not selling the product but the rather air around it', and corresponding hypothetical 'alignment points' will be added or subtracted.
We've had people who tried to please us with their application only to find out resume post college, later (and to great expense to du conseil dissertation, both parties) that it didn't work out. I believe, that the best thing is to work for resume post, the company with same values as I have , and we want our candidates' my application and CV in particular to make clear what their values are. The silver bullet in this case is not whether or not to include some information, but to in social media, be as honest as possible to get the best match for you (and yes, lying in CV is resume a certain type of healthily with, honesty, too, since there are many companies out there which value just that). It would be inadvisable to bring up such a topic for several reasons. For most people it may seem pseudo-scientific and a bit weird.
People in HR will not like it, because they have an anti-testing cult due to EEOC brainwashing. Any mention of resume, IQ tests, standardized tests, personality tests, or anything else like that typically will trigger a negative reaction from HR. Of course, they do not make the hiring decision, but nevertheless it is le role du conseil dissertation unwise to alienate them.
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22 January 2013, 10:00. PhD defence - Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad. Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad is defending his PhD thesis: Exercise impact on depressed patients’ self: The impact of exercise on physical self-perception and self-esteem of outpatients with depressive disorders in Denmark Read more. 18 January 2013, 10:00. Nicole Thualagant is defending her PhD thesis: Fitness Doping and Body Management.
An Explorative Study of persuasive essay rubrics for middle Body Investment Practices Read more. 26 November 2012, 14:00. Pia Christensen is defending her PhD thesis: Efficacy and Safety of Low Energy Diets in the Treatment of Older Obese Individuals Read more. 22 November 2012, 14:00. Thomas P. Resume Post College? Gunnarsson is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of intensified training on muscle ion transport proteins and high kinetics in resume post, relation to fatigue development and essay writing contest 2009 performance of post college endurance athletes and soccer players Read more. 12 October 2012, 14:00. Lars Klingenberg is defending his PhD thesis: Acute Effects of Insufficient Sleep on eating a busy, Energy Balance Read more. 20 September 2012, 14:30.
PhD defence - Christian Kirkegaard Pehmoller. Christian Kirkegaard Pehmøller is defending his PhD thesis: Regulation of post TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in skeletal muscle From mouse to man Read more. PhD defence - Sarah Fredsted Villadsen. Sarah Fredsted Villadsen is defending her PhD thesis: Strategic perspectives on antenatal care. Development of a participatory antenatal care strengthening intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia Read more. PhD defence - Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen. Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen is dissertation defending his PhD thesis: The Double Burden. The role of diabetes for tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and survival Read more. 5 July 2012, 13:00. Brynjulf Mortensen is resume defending her PhD thesis: The impact of the intrauterine environment, exercise and physical inactivity on the skeletal muscle AMPK system and downstream targets Read more.
25 June 2012, 14:30. Tue Hvass Petersen is defending his PhD-thesis - Development of illinois ged essay Neural Control of resume Human Gait Read more. 3 May 2012, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Landau Brab?k Christiansen. Mette Landau Brabæk Christiansen is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle - Insights from contest 2009, human cell culture and rodent models Read more. 16 March 2012, 12:30. PhD defence - Jonas Moller Kristensen. Jonas Møller Kristensen is defending his PhD-thesis - Role of metformin in regulation of AMPK activation, glucose uptake and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue Read more. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports.
PhD thesis published in Danish by resume post college Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen.
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Arguably: Essays — By Christopher Hitchens — Book Review. Anyone who occasionally opens one of our more serious periodicals has learned that the byline of Christopher Hitchens is an opportunity to resume be delighted or maddened — possibly both — but in dissertation any case not to be missed. He is our intellectual omnivore, exhilarating and infuriating, if not in equal parts at least with equal wit. He has been rather famously an aggressive critic of God and his followers, after cutting his sacrilegious teeth on Mother Teresa. Resume College. He wrote a deadpan argument for eating lifestyle trying Henry Kissinger as a war criminal, then was branded an apostate by former friends on the left for vigorously supporting the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. (He memorably — a lot of what Hitchens has written merits the adverb — shot back that his antiwar critics were “the sort who, discovering a viper in the bed of their child, would place the first call to People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.”) And he is post college dying of esophageal cancer, a fact he has faced with exceptional aplomb. This fifth and, one fears, possibly last collection of illinois ged essay his essays is a reminder of all that will be missed when the cancer is finished with him. Let’s begin with the obvious. Resume. He is unfathomably prolific. “Arguably” is a great ingot of a book, more than 780 pages containing 107 essays. Some of high school them entailed extensive travel in inconvenient places like Afghanistan and Uganda and Iran; those that are more in the way of armchair punditry come from an armchair within reach of a very well-used library. They appeared in various publications during a period in which he also published his best-selling exegesis against religion, “God Is Not Great”; a short and well-reviewed biography of Thomas Jefferson; a memoir, “Hitch-22”; as well as various debates, reading guides, letters and rebuttals — all done while consuming daily quantities of alcoholic drink that would cripple most people. As Ian Parker noted in resume his definitive 2006 New Yorker profile of Hitchens, the constitutionnel dissertation, man writes as fast as some people read.
The second notable thing about college Hitchens is his erudition. He doesn’t always wear it lightly — more than once he remarks, upon pulling out a classic for essay contest 2009 reconsideration, that he first read the work in question when he was 12 — but it is not just a parlor trick. In the book reviews that make up much of this collection, the most ambitious of them written for The Atlantic, he takes the assigned volume — a new literary biography of Stephen Spender or Graham Greene or Somerset Maugham, or a new collection of letters by Philip Larkin or Jessica Mitford — and uses it as pretext to review, with opinionated insights, the entire life and work of the resume, writer in question, often supplementing his prodigious memory by illinois, rereading several books. He is a master of the post, essay that not only spares you the trouble of reading the le role du conseil, book under review, but leaves you feeling you have just completed an invigorating graduate seminar. Although the necessity of imposing some order on a collection of this type means that his literary reviews are more or less sequestered from his political polemics and foreign reporting, his mind does not observe these boundaries. One of his charms is his habit of pulling in resume a novel or poem to shore up an argument about war or politics. A piece that is nominally a riff on the Bush family invokes Brecht, Wilde, Orwell, Dickens, Beckett, one Amis (Kingsley), two Waughs (Auberon and Evelyn) and Joyce Cary, leaving scarcely any room for Bushes.
A magisterial essay on healthily the subject of resume partition draws more heavily on Auden than on historians. (That piece, by the way, is a humbling account of all the persuasive rubrics for middle school, ways Britain has blundered while mapmaking at gunpoint. Resume Post College. I wondered whether the essay, published in the same month as the invasion of Iraq, gave him any pause about our competence to set that country right.) His range is extraordinary, both in breadth and in high school altitude. He is resume post college as self-confident on the politics of Lebanon as on the ontology of the Harry Potter books. He can pivot from the high essay, court of Henry VIII to post the Baader-Meinhof gang, then stoop to the question of whether fellatio is the quintessentially American sex act. He reviews the Ten Commandments, offering some thoughtful revisions. Du Conseil Dissertation. He wages war against euphemism — most vividly by having himself subjected to waterboarding, so that he can report with authority that it is not an “enhanced interrogation” technique but unquestionably “torture.” It would be antithetical to the Hitchens spirit to cut him slack just because I like him (he’s been a friend of my wife’s for many years, and his alcohol-propelled conversation is a captivating form of performance art) or because he is dying of cancer. So let’s acknowledge that some of the essays in this collection are exceedingly smug. He has no qualms about adding insult to injury: Karen Hughes is a “braying Bush-crony ignoramus”; President Kennedy was not only “a moral defective and a political disaster,” but “a poxed and suppurating Philoctetes.” He repeats himself. Some of his work feels dashed off.
A few pieces fall flat from an resume post excess of trying. In a Vanity Fair bit called “Why Women Aren’t Funny,” he posits that men are funnier for Darwinian reasons: hapless males need the gift of humor to persuade women to eating healthily with lifestyle essay mate with them. In the post college, introduction to the book, he describes this as “the most instantly misinterpreted of all my articles,” but I think it is possible to interpret it correctly and still find it patronizing and, worse, criminally unfunny. So, having paid my dues to for middle school critical candor, I still find Hitchens one of the most stimulating thinkers and entertaining writers we have, even when — perhaps especially when — he provokes. And while he clearly wants to college win you over, you always sense that he is playing in part to the jury of history, which is why so much of what he might, in a rare self-deprecating moment, refer to illinois ged essay as hackwork stands up so well to anthologizing. Although he is possessed of a free-range mind, I think it is grossly unfair to charge, as some of post his former friends on essay the socialist left have done, that he is an intellectual opportunist or a dilettante or a mere provocateur. He is a man of beliefs, and while they are often arguable (note the title of the book), they seem to resume me genuine and coherent. One of dissertation in social media his beliefs, of resume course, is unbelief. He regards God as a superstition employed by religions for the purpose of control and du conseil constitutionnel dissertation, repression. His hostility to religion has been fortified by resume post, the rise of Islamic extremism, which he tends to take personally, in part because of the fatwa against high career essay, his good friend Salman Rushdie. His aversion to religion has offended many, and post college, even those who are not devout may complain that he tends to overlook benign aspects of religious faith and practice, but his critique is generally more thoughtful than scornful.
As Michael Kinsley has written in these pages, “God should be flattered: unlike most of those clamoring for his attention, Hitchens treats him like an eating with a busy essay adult.” More important, Hitchens’s wariness of religion is not just an resume iconoclastic taunt (his denunciation of Mother Teresa falls more into contest, that category), but a component part of an resume post ideology with a fine pedigree. He treasures secular governance, reasoned argument, pluralism, tolerance (except of the humorless or the essay rubrics for middle, boring) and freedom, and loathes the wicked isms of resume oppression — communism, imperialism, racism and above all totalitarianism. His obvious role model is George Orwell, who recurs often in this volume as subject, moral touchstone, literary kibitzer, footnote and in social, foil. One senses that in his enthusiasm for resume the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq — which arise in this volume more incidentally than frontally, in career essay a piece on the emancipation of Afghan women or a report on a holiday in Iraqi Kurdistan — Hitchens is emulating Orwell’s embrace of the Republican cause against Franco’s fascists in the Spanish Civil War. Another ism he rejects is pacifism. Hitchens is post college often grouped with a generation of dazzlingly clever British writers who happen to be his friends — Martin Amis, Ian McEwan, James Fenton — but what sets him apart in important ways, and what struck me forcefully reading this collection, is that he is an American. Not American born or educated (probably just as well), but American by high career, choice. He took citizenship in 2007 after a quarter-century as a resident.
Much of this book, including the opening chapter of essays under the heading “All American,” reflects his idiosyncratic take on what his adopted country means to him. His can seem a narrowly coastal America. Resume Post. The flyover states don’t much exist. Healthily With A Busy Essay. A journalist who is such an empathetic observer in Kabul or Ho Chi Minh City seems to post college have little reportorial curiosity about the space between Washington, where he lives, and California, where he has spent his summers. Essay Writing. On the rare occasions when he ventures out of his American comfort zone, as in post college a visit to the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, he is bemused to learn that real people — “good-humored, outspoken and tough-minded” — reside there. It is interesting that he mocks John Updike for displaying “an intellectual and aesthetic disgust . . . with the grossness and banality of much of high essay American life.” Updike’s view of ordinary Americans may be reductionist or genteel, but at resume college least he has one. Essay Writing 2009. Hitchens finds much to love about America, but on the evidence of this collection, he seems to find it mostly in books. But what he finds is no less genuine and essential for being rather cerebral. Hitchens holds to an America founded on secularism and the separation of powers, a nation with an admirable affection for revolutionaries and misfits, a defining embrace of resume post college variety. At a time when America is experiencing a resurgent campaign to proclaim us a “Judeo-Christian nation,” Hitchens delights in the plentiful evidence that the healthily a busy, founders were not all that religious and certainly not interested in creating a sectarian country. “The ancestor of the American Revolution was the English Revolution of the 1640s, whose leaders and spokesmen were certainly Protestant fundamentalists, but that did not bind the framers and cannot be said to college bind us, either,” he writes, in a Weekly Standard review of Brooke Allen’s book “Moral Minority: Our Skeptical Founding Fathers,” which is, not coincidentally, the first essay in this book. “Indeed, the established Protestant church in essay Britain was one of the models which we can be quite sure the signatories of 1776 were determined to avoid emulating.” Hitchens erects his own pantheon of American heroes, and resume post college, the country offers no end of inventive, radical, idealistic and activist figures for him to admire.
Jefferson, Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine and Lincoln all get loving and refreshing treatment here. Dissertation In Social. Not surprisingly, he takes the side of resume college those who regard the antislavery insurrectionist John Brown as a visionary hero against those who deem him a terrorist. (Morally, Hitchens is more about ends than means; his book is dedicated to three Arab suicides who martyred themselves in the Arab Spring, one by car-bombing a Libyan Army post.) He embraces the literature of le role constitutionnel dissertation Mark Twain, Upton Sinclair, Saul Bellow and others, finding in American writing since the founding “a certain allegiance to the revolutionary and emancipating idea.” In Jefferson’s decision to send the young American Navy against the extortionist Barbary pirates, Hitchens discovers a precedent for the current American engagements with Islamic fanatics, and an argument for a selective but bold use of American power in the world. Elsewhere, he takes on Graham Greene’s moral cynicism about America’s part in the cold war. At times the college, book feels like an essay for middle ongoing argument with the leftist intellectuals on the other side of the post college, Atlantic, who tend to view America as lacking in history, culture or moral standing. In an essay on the journalism of Karl Marx, written for the left-leaning Guardian, he puts an elbow in the ribs of du conseil his old socialist friends: “If you are looking for an irony of history, you will find it . . . in the fact that he and Engels considered Russia the great bastion of post college reaction and America the a busy lifestyle essay, great potential nurse of liberty and equality. This is post not the sort of thing they teach you in school (in either country).” “There is currently much easy talk about the ‘decline’ of my adopted country, both in confidence and in resources,” he writes in his introduction. “I don’t choose to join this denigration.” Christopher Hitchens: American patriot.
We’ve done a lot worse. If there is a God, and he lacks a sense of school irony, he will send Hitchens to the hottest precinct of hell. If God does have a sense of irony, Hitchens will spend eternity in a town that serves no liquor and has no library. Either way, heaven will be a less interesting place. By Christopher Hitchens. 788 pp. Resume. Twelve. $30. Bill Keller, formerly The Times’s executive editor, is persuasive for middle school now a columnist for the newspaper and a writer for The Times Magazine. “We Were Eight Years in Power” is a selection of Coates’s most influential pieces from The Atlantic, with new material about what he was thinking and feeling when he wrote them.
A visit with Dan Brown, whose new novel — as with all of his works — doesn’t shy away from the post, big questions, but rushes pell-mell into illinois ged essay, them. In “Origin,” the post college, question is: Can science make religion obsolete? “Between the World and Me,” Coates’s treatise on black male life in America, catapulted him to prominence. Coates spoke to The Times about his new book, “We Were Eight Years in Power,” his year in Paris and what he’s up to next.
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ancestors essay Human Evolution's Winding Path. Darwin got it mostly right. The 1859 book “On the Origin of Species” is notorious for Darwin's evasion of the subject of human evolution. In it, he wrote only: much light will be thrown on resume college, the origin of man and his history. However, Darwin more directly discussed the subject of essay writing contest 2009 human evolution in his 1871 treatise, “The Descent of Man . ” In that book, he clearly laid out a prediction that human ancestors would be found in Africa. Of course, at the time, there was virtually no known fossil record, so Darwin could only predict that someday, some future geologist would find fossils connecting modern apes with modern humans via an ancient undiscovered common ancestor. Resume Post! These predictions proved to be remarkably accurate.
Based on a busy lifestyle essay, what was known at the time about living apes and humans, Darwin 'triangulated' that our earliest hominid ancestors were the result of feedback between bipedality, freedom of the hands, reduction of the canine tooth and face, expansion of the resume post college brain, and the increasing use of tools. Le Role Du Conseil Constitutionnel! In other words, he postulated simple, straight-line, human evolution. In the post college 138 years that followed, however, evidence showed this model was too simplistic as the fossil record revealed a more complicated path to modern humans. Prehistoric stone tools were found across Europe long before Darwin and his contemporary British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace explained evolution via the mechanism of natural selection. Accompanying some of these tools were human-like fossils that took their name from Neanderthal, the German site where they were first discovered.
The “Neanderthal Men” associated with the site became one of the earliest challenges to Darwin’s view of in social human evolution. Post! Neanderthals were interpreted by some as pathological, whereas others saw them as an evolutionary side branch, and yet others as direct human ancestors. Essay School! The Neanderthal debate persisted for nearly 150 years, and was only college, recently resolved by a powerful combination of well-dated African fossils and dissertation media comparisons of ancient Neanderthal DNA with DNA of resume college modern humans. Dissertation Media! Evidence now indicates these near-humans were a circum-Mediterranean side branch that went extinct about resume college 30,000 years ago and did not give rise to writing contest 2009 modern humans. Neanderthals show that the path to modern humans was not the post college simple, straight-line predicted by Darwin, since they existed too recently to bear on Darwin’s predictions about what our much earlier progenitors were like, or where they lived. However the recovery of well-preserved fossils in a well-calibrated, dated geological sequence largely have proved Darwin’s original hypothesis about an African birthplace. These early human-like fossils first were discovered in the 1920s, in Africa, as Darwin predicted. At first there was considerable controversy over these remains.
Today, however, we recognize several species that all belong within Australopithecus , a zoological genus closely related to the human genus Homo #8212;and seemingly ancestral to it. Perhaps the most important of the thousands of Australopithecus fossils known today is a small female found in the Ethiopian desert. Persuasive Rubrics School! Her scientific name is Australopithecus afarensis , and resume post she died 3.2 million years ago. Her bones eventually eroded out of ancient channel deposits and her discoverers nicknamed her Lucy. The completeness and quality of her skeleton has provided considerable insight into early hominids. On the ged essay family tree, Lucy's species is one of many now bridging the gap between modern people and the last common ancestor that we shared with the living African apes. Science has both creative and critical dimensions.
Darwin, as a historical scientist, employed what he knew about the modern world to resume college predict what might have been found in the world of the past. He creatively and correctly hypothesized that humans evolved in Africa. He creatively but incorrectly hypothesized that our earliest ancestors would appear to be a halfway house between chimpanzee and illinois human. The evidence of Lucy and the many other fossils of the species that she represents shows that these creatures were neither chimps nor humans, nor were they halfway between modern chimpanzee and human, but rather had their own unique characteristics. This uniqueness is confirmed by evidence of the archaeological record as well as geochronology.
The molecular evidence also confirms this in the living endpoints of two very different evolutionary trajectories. Although Darwin’s hypothesis on college, the location of the evolution of man has proven correct, Darwin's hypothesis about the ged essay sequence in which human characteristics arose during our evolution has been rejected. It seems likely that Darwin would have been delighted to witness the arrival and interpretation of that new evidence. The approach that he brought ushow to be curious, critical and creative scientistshas indeed seen evolutionary biology through the last 150 years very nicely. Darwin's core insight lets us understand how evolution works and resume is now the bedrock of biology. School! It is post, also the very basis for understanding how we got here. School Career! Tim White is a world renowned paleoanthropologist and professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California at Berkeley. Post! His work frequently takes him to study sites in Afar, Ethiopia, Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania (at Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli) and Turkey.
His primary research involves human evolution in all its dimensions and writing he and his colleagues are credited with the resume post discovery in Ethiopia in with a busy lifestyle, 1995 of perhaps the oldest known human ancestor, Ardipithecus ramidus , dated to 4.4 million years ago. The National Science Foundation supports his work on a Middle Awash research project in resume post college, Ethiopia. Please see the Resources section for the Bibliography/Additional Reading list for this essay.
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Manuel Varela: Who Was Antoine Lavoisier? An Interview with Manuel Varela: Who Was Antoine Lavoisier? Michael F. Post? Shaughnessy – 1) The name Antoine Lavoisier is linked with a great many ideas, theories and important aspects as we shall see. Rubrics School? What do we know about resume post college, his childhood? The investigator Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier, is known amongst the present chemists as the principle founder of the modern field of science called chemistry. Lavoisier was born on the 26 th of essay 2009 August in the year 1743 in Paris, France, to parents Jean Antoine (his father) and resume post college, Jeanne Emilie Punctis Lavoisier (his mother). Antoine’s father was a prominent attorney, and his mother was herself the sole daughter of a wealthy attorney. The immediate Lavoisier family was known to dissertation in social media, be wealthy and bourgeois members of France’s powerful nobility and aristocracy. His mother Emilie died when Antoine was only 5 years of age, leaving a rather sizeable sum of money as an inheritance. He was then sent to live with his doting aunt, Marie Marguerite Constance Punctis (Aunt Constance), and his grandmother Punctis from his mother’s side of the family, during this time onward.
Some sources say that his widower father and kids lived together in the same household as his aunt and grandmother. Young Antoine had a younger sister, Marie Marguerite Emilie, who was born during the resume post college, year 1745 and later died at the age of 15 years, bringing the ged essay, close-knit family even closer together. Antoine’s devoted Aunt Constance, who never married, passed away later in 1781. She left the grand bulk of her own rather enormous wealth to post, Antoine, whom she had essentially raised ever since his mother had died. Additionally, his grandmother Punctis died in 1768 and left Lavoisier another hefty sum for his inheritance. 2) Apparently, when he went to College Mazarin, the procedure in terms of media education then was some Professor came in post and lectured- and then some grad or doctoral student would conduct some experiment proving what the grand old Professor said- but what happened with Lavoisier? In 1754, when the child Lavoisier was approximately 11 years old, his father had enrolled him (Antoine) in the prestigious College de Quatre Nations, founded by Cardinal Mazarin, also referred to as the Mazarin College, where he was provided an education in the liberal arts and sciences, focusing primarily on the languages because, at the time, the young Lavoisier had initially wanted to become a writer. A short while later, when Lavoisier had changed his primary interests to those of the sciences, he nonetheless went into the study of eating lifestyle law, receiving his undergraduate degree and law license in 1764, at the age of 21 years. While it has been alleged that Lavoisier was greatly influenced by several of his professors while in college, such as by Prof. Resume Post? Abbe la Caille (astronomy math), who had discovered the arc of the meridian around the Cape of Good Hope, by Prof.
Guillaume-Francois Rouelle (chemistry), by Prof. Bernard de Jussieu (botany), and writing, especially by Prof. Etienne Condillac (chemistry), he (Lavoisier) was, at resume the same time, not easily persuaded by the professors’ proclamations during their lectures. During this period at Mazarin, the professors’ lectures were often accompanied by an actual experimental demonstration of the healthily lifestyle essay, proclaimed concepts, often conducted by a graduate student or a doctoral candidate, also known as a ‘demonstrator’ of the lectured concepts. Occasionally, a demonstrator’s public ‘demonstration’ was in resume stark contradiction to the stated ‘facts’ put forth by the great Professor, and Lavoisier was known to have wisely and acutely been aware of the inconsistent nature of these lectured concepts versus the laboratory demonstrations. Apparently, many of his fellow students merely took their notes obediently, seemingly unaware of du conseil constitutionnel these disparities. Resume College? Lavoisier saw the need for careful experimental analysis and constant reevaluation of the commonly accepted notions held by dissertation in social his generation, especially when dealing with the concepts of alchemy.
Lavoisier often had hope for post college, successive generations in the acceptance the new ideas emerging from his own work. 3) Apparently, he was first involved in literature, then agriculture- what were his contributions to that field? Lavoisier was made aware of a serious agricultural problem occurring in France and elsewhere in Europe and the New World pertaining to a disease known as the ergot poisoning, or ergotism. Although unknown to Lavoisier and constitutionnel, his contemporaries at the time, certain grain crops, especially rye, may be contaminated with a fungus, now known by its scientific name Claviceps purpurea , producing a rye blight. The fungus produces a toxin, a derivative of ergoline-based molecules, that conveys upon post college their unsuspecting victims rather startling symptoms, like extreme pain in the extremities—patients reported that their hands and feet felt like they were on fire—plus, hallucinations and physical uncontrollable convulsions, among other non-specific signs and symptoms. The ergot poisoning was known historically in the Middle Ages as the eating healthily lifestyle essay, so-called “Holy Fire” and later as the “St.
Anthony’s Fire” because, as it has been recorded, if the post college, patients made a pilgrimage to the church of St. Anthony’s, they would find relief that was considered nothing short of miraculous. Historians and scientists have speculated that the monks at St. Anthony’s fed their pilgrims rye bread that was not contaminated with the fungus. It’s been further postulated that the ergot poisoning also played in role in conferring behavior reminiscent of having been bewitched in those individuals who had been accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, during the illinois ged essay, 1660s. Lavoisier became a member and secretary of a Royal Commission dealing largely with agricultural issues in France. Lavoisier was known to have spent a great deal of his time (about 10 years) and money to study and develop new farming practices devoted to not only improving crop yield but also to minimizing crop losses due to the ergot fungus and the rye blight. Lavoisier noted an association between unusually wet and post college, rainy seasons with the onset of the rye blight and 2009, the ergotism. Lavoisier was involved in the filing of a report addressing the rye blight issue. In the Royal Commission’s report, Lavoisier provided an overview of certain farming practices that might possibly be implemented in post college order to solve the essay contest, rye blight problem. Lavoisier suggested that other crops be farmed, such as those less susceptible to the ergot.
He noted, however, that because the farmers were terribly poverty-stricken as a result of resume heavy taxing and unusually high rent rates, the potentially useful farming practices would necessarily be unrealistic. Le Role? Thus, reform was essentially impossible. 4) Okay–key word—phlogiston — why is this important and resume, why linked to Lavoisier? During Lavoisier’s time, it was widely believed that fire released a substance called phlogiston, contained within combustible materials. Lavoisier conducted experiments aimed at writing measuring the substances released during combustion. First, Lavoisier set the metal tin on fire and measured the weight of the resulting ash produced; he noticed the tin ash weighed more than the unburned tin! This was an unexpected result because it meant that during the fire the tin was picking up something, rather than losing something, like the putative phlogiston, perhaps.
Next, Lavoisier repeated his combustion experiments but with the resume post college, element phosphorous and illinois, found essentially the same sort of results, namely, that the burned phosphorus was heavier than it had been prior to the setting of it on resume, fire. Then, Lavoisier tried his combustion experiments with mercury. Again, Lavoisier found that the burned substances were heavier after being burned than they had been prior to being set on fire, suggesting that the combusted mercury material was actually picking up substances, rather than releasing them, like the so-called phlogiston theory had so eloquently predicted. Lavoisier’s work went totally against the widely held phlogiston concept—in a word, he became an in social media ardent ‘antiphlogist.’ 5) Air consists, (and correct me if I am wrong) of oxygen and nitrogen. Why is this important in resume the big scheme of things- and how does it relate to Lavoisier? You are certainly correct about the essentially non-polluted elemental composition of the Earth’s atmospheric nature. Illinois? The elements oxygen and nitrogen played a large part in the studies of Lavoisier. Following up on his phlogiston experiments, Lavoisier found that combusted materials that he had set on fire were picking up oxygen and very likely nitrogen after the burning processes.
He measured the volume of the so-called ‘dephlogisticated’ air around the combusted materials using a large bell-shaped jar. The air volume had been reduced during the combustion process, suggesting that something from the air was being picked up by the burned materials. At first, Lavoisier called one of the new substances ‘azote’ which we now know to be the element nitrogen. At first, critics of Lavoisier’s antiphlogiston work maintained, albeit incorrectly, that the reduced air volume was indicative of and resume post, represented by the phlogiston. Favorable to Lavoisier’s antiphlogiston work was the then recent discovery and purification of the element called oxygen by Joseph Priestley and Carl Wilhelm Scheele in healthily with a busy lifestyle essay 1774.
Using tin and mercury for his experiments, Lavoisier burned these metals as before, except that he then used a tightly sealed glass container while permitting the burned elements to become oxidized. Resume? Upon measuring the weight of the sealed vessel, he found no difference in le role constitutionnel amounts before and post, after their burning. However, when Lavoisier opened the sealed container, he made the essay for middle, astute observation of air rushing into the newly opened combustion vessels. Lavoisier reasoned that a vacuum had been generated in the sealed vessel, probably as a result of the resume, burned material picking up a substance from the air, leaving behind the persuasive rubrics school, vacuum. Lavoisier deduced that, instead of phlogiston becoming liberated by combustion, a substance was taken up. Post? This substance he later found to be present in acids. Persuasive For Middle School? Therefore, in resume post 1778, Lavoisier called this absorbed substance oxygene , meaning “generator of an acid,” or what we now know to be the media, element oxygen. This discovery was to have a profound effect on the history and resume post college, the progress within the field of chemistry.
His work meant that during combustion, oxygen was taken up into the equations involving the chemistry of fire. The work essentially changed the entire direction of the investigations pertaining to the chemistry discipline. 6) Heat, and combustion—why are these two words key to Lavoisier’s thinking about chemistry? In Lavoisier’s experiments, he had carefully controlled the amount of heat needed to initiate the combustion process during the school career essay, burning of his experimental materials. Resume Post? For example, in le role du conseil dissertation his mercury experiments, Lavoisier heated mercury contained within a large bell-shaped jar apparatus, turning the mercury into a reddish colored ash heap. The reddish ash heap weighed more than it had before while the air had less volume. He had found that the leftover air was nitrogen. Next, he repeated his mercury-heating experiment, except that this time he used the red ash heap as a starting material and raised the amount of heat to even higher levels than he had previously. This time, however, he had regenerated the mercury and at the similar weight that it had been before, demonstrating the reversibility of the resume post college, process.
This reversibility should have been impossible, at least according to the phlogiston theory, which had quite clearly stated that the chemical reactions cannot be reversed. These experiments conducted by with lifestyle Lavoisier essentially had the resume college, effect of forever discrediting the phlogiston hypothesis, thus paving the way for progress to in social media, occur in the burgeoning field of chemistry. This work was incredibly important when, for instance, Pasteur later proclaimed that living beings could also conduct chemistry during the respiration process. During the process of resume post college wine fermentation, Lavoisier found that sugar was converted to bicarbonate gas and to ethanol, a chemical compound he called the ‘spirit of wine.’ Lavoisier hypothesized that fermentation and in social, the process of putrefaction occurred by resume post similar modes. He showed the involvement of carbon dioxide in in social media the course of resume respiration. He also clearly delineated the nature of the dissertation, so-called ‘fixed air,’ which had been studied by college Joseph Black, as carbon dioxide. These studies were to be critical to the development of both organic chemistry and later of biochemistry. 7) Now, I have to tell you- for years of my life in persuasive essay for middle school school- I stared at that Periodic Table of the Elements in various classes. Was Lavoisier somewhat initially involved in that big Table? As you no doubt know, and were quite likely taught as you stared at The Table, the periodic table of the elements was meant to include only post those substances which cannot themselves be broken down any further.
Although, in modern times, we now know that these elements representing the atoms can indeed be further broken down into sub-atomic particles, like quarks and muons, etc. Lavoisier had several important contributions regarding the formulation of periodic table of the elements. First, in studying water in 1783, Lavoisier found that it was not elemental in his strictest sense of the word, as he found that water consisted of oxygen, plus some other substance, which he had named as hydrogen. Prior to this discovery, Henry Cavendish had called this hydrogen gas an ‘inflammable air.’ Lavoisier had burned Cavendish’s inflammable air in the presence of oxygen and found water consisted of hydrogen and oxygen. Regarding other elements, Lavoisier has been credited with astutely predicting, in school career 1878, the presence of silicon as an element. Additionally, he is credited with having discovered the element sulfur. He was known to have burned sulfur and to have combined it with oxygen. Further, it has been reported that he coined the resume post, name carbon to this important element. Interestingly, the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are all present in constitutionnel carbohydrates. He was reported to have written the very first list of the elements.
In 1789, after his death, his grand book was published, due largely through the efforts of resume post college his widow, Marie-Anne Lavoisier. The book was titled ‘ Elementary Treatise of Chemistry ’ in which Lavoisier simply began making a listing of the contest, various pure substances, the elements. Within the book, Lavoisier called this list a ‘Table of Simple Substances.’ Some historians of chemistry consider this book to resume post, constitute one of the first, if not the persuasive rubrics school, first, of the modern chemistry textbooks. 8) Elementary chemical nomenclature is attributed to him and a few colleagues- what is the story here? Lavoisier had apparently made the suggestion that while the so-called simple non-decomposable substances be referred to as elements, the combination of any given elements, however, should be henceforth called compounds. Thus, the term chemical compounds owes its origin to Lavoisier and is commonly used to this day. Furthermore, he said that if a substance was known to undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen, the substance should be referred to as having been ‘oxidized,’ calling the new chemical variation an post college ‘oxide.’ Thus Lavoisier is recognized has having an important and long-lasting influence upon le role the nomenclature nature within the study of the resume post college, chemical substances. 9) Conservation of matter in essay rubrics for middle school a specific chemical equation- why was this important? Prior to post, Lavoisier’s involvement with the le role du conseil constitutionnel, phlogiston hypothesis, the principle of the conservation of matter had been put forth by Mikhail Lomonosov in 1756. Lavoisier’s experimental studies with the anti-phlogiston work was completely in college line with the law of matter conservation in that the healthily with essay, overall weights of both starting and ending materials remained largely unchanged.
The so-called law of conservation of matter is vitally important not only for resume, chemicals, as noted in Lavoisier’s studies, but also critical when considering energy. The mass conservation principle is widely applicable to the fields of chemistry, physics, engineering, mechanics, etc. Lastly, the work of Lavoisier in this area began transition from the end of alchemy as we know it to the start of persuasive school modern chemistry, as it exists today. 10) Sadly, for whatever reason, like so many in post France at the time, he faced the healthily a busy essay, guillotine. What happened? Unknown to post, him, the path to the guillotine started early on for Lavoisier. First, as a result of the inheritances from his devoted Aunt and his Grandmother Punctis, Antoine became an independently wealthy individual, leaving him plenty of free time to pursue intellectual interests when he became an adult. It also provided needed funding to school career, perform many of resume post college his important experiments. Unfortunately, however, it also provided a secure means for other new and rather dubious investments, one being an investment in eating with lifestyle a notorious tax-collecting firm. It is reported, however, that Lavoisier had indeed tried to institute tax true reform measures that were meant to actually help the poor, but to no avail. During the post, period of the French Revolution, all of the supremely hated tax collectors and anyone even remotely associated with tax collecting, such as Lavoisier, and eating healthily a busy essay, his father-in-law, were themselves collected (arrested) by the revolutionaries, given a highly questionable and obviously unfair, but speedy trial, all based on trumped up charges, and were summarily condemned to death.
It is also told that part of his demise centered on his refusal to allow admittance of Jean-Paul Marat to the French Academy of Sciences, a slight that Marat never forgot and was later to exploit in an effort to destroy Lavoisier. Thus, his minor business association, in resume addition to le role, being a bona fide member of the aristocracy, of course, were also to constitute another important motive for the prosecution of Lavoisier. His many scientific contributions were summarily rejected and college, deemed insufficient by his persecutors for any sort of hope of redemption. Sadly, on illinois, the day of the execution of Lavoisier by guillotine on the 8 th of May in the year 1794, he was apparently first made to stand and resume post, watch the beheading of his beloved father-in-law, just before undergoing the execution himself. 11) His wife carried on his work after his death. Any ideas about her contributions? In 1771, when Lavoisier was already 28 years old, he married the then 13 year old Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the ged essay, daughter of one of post college his senior tax-collecting business associates.
His new wife, Madame Lavoisier, was reported to high career essay, have had an college educational background in the sciences and constitutionnel dissertation, was well studied in the arts and resume college, languages. The story is told that the le role du conseil constitutionnel dissertation, marriage of Lavoisier to the very young Marie-Anne was actually a favor to post, her father, a senior business partner of the tax collecting firm, La Ferme Generale , of which Lavoisier was an investor. Apparently, the 40-year old Count d’Amerval had proposed to young Marie-Anne and made it clear that if she refused, her father would be fired from the tax-collecting firm. Dissertation? Thus, in order to have a convenient excuse for refusing the Count’s proposal, Lavoisier and Marie-Anne quickly got married. Resume Post College? The ‘ruse’ apparently worked, and the Count was put off. The newlyweds, however, were devoted to each other for the rest of his life, and she proved to be a strong supporter and illinois, advocate for post, Antoine and of his career in particular.
Prior to his death, Madame Lavoisier had been continually at career his side, able to resume, ‘talk shop’ with Lavoisier on a routine basis. She translated journal articles from English to French for him to read. She participated in the actual experimental research as his laboratory assistant. She was even to elegantly produce many of the illustrative engravings featured so prominently in his publications, her illustrations forever archived within the important scientific literature in chemistry. After his untimely death, Madame Lavoisier, who was spared the guillotine during the dissertation media, French Revolution, continued on with the resume, work of high career essay her late husband. She made every effort to retrieve her husband’s laboratory notes and books which had been confiscated during his prosecution. She was able to post, assure continued publications of essay rubrics later printings for his works, ensuring their permanent archival in the published literature. She also worked on resume post, and published his memoirs. She hosted many gatherings in which prominent investigators of the day were invited to present and discuss new scientific contributions in the newly established field of modern chemistry. Madame Lavoisier lived for many years after the death of her beloved husband Antoine in 1794.
Marie-Anne died on the 10 of February in the year 1836 at 78 years of age. 12) I think as a closing comment, I will quote Joseph Lagrange who said “It took but a moment to dissertation in social media, sever that head, though a hundred years perhaps will be unable to post, replace it.” Lavoisier was known as the high school career essay, Father of Modern Chemistry? Has anyone replaced him? I think that the quotation you to which you refer and which is rightly attributed to Lagrange, is a noticeably profound one, and I believe it is most certainly an apropos observation. Lavoisier was so prominent in the fledgling subject of post modern chemistry with so many amazing discoveries it is difficult to du conseil constitutionnel dissertation, comprehend what other additional great contributions he might have been able to make, had he not been quite unfairly executed at such an early age. Many great scientists have made their greatest contributions to science in their later years. I believe that in terms of resume post playing such an illinois ged essay important role in the transition from alchemy, a dubious and defunct area, to the field of modern chemistry, a widely accepted and extremely important scientific discipline today, Lavoisier certainly has no equal. charles w blackwell on Tell Your Kids: Bring Your Bible To School Tomorrow – October 5th child on resume college, To Improve Teacher Training, States Try ‘Micro Credentials’ JerryS on ged essay, Cyberbullying – 20 National Bullying Prevention Month Images Bobbi Liz Vustos on DEATH OF DOCTORS THAT COME OUT AGAINST THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY The Content When it comes to college, Advanced schooling Soccer Pro athletes Actually being Payed off | LemonChutney on The Information Regarding College Football Athletes Being Paid child on SICK! Teachers desecrate American flag — Inside a school library Mary Ellen Stypinski on Elementary School Librarian Rejects Melania Trump’s Book Donation.
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essay on durer agnes The Self-Portraits of Albrecht Dürer. Men are not born, but fashioned- Desiderius Erasmus. Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the college Italian Renaissance , 1860. The following is from the eating a busy introduction to the second part of the book, entitled The Development of the Individual: In the post college Middle Ages both sides of constitutionnel human consciousness--that which was turned within as that which was turned without-- lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veil. The veil was woven of faith, illusion, and childish prepossession, through which the world and history were seen clad in strange hues.
Man was conscious of himself only college as a member of a race, people, party, family, or corporation--only through some general category. In Italy this veil first melted into air; an objective treatment and dissertation media, consideration of the State and of all the things of this world became possible. The subjective side at the same time asserted itself with corresponding emphasis; man became a spiritual individual, and recognized himself as such. In the same way the Greek had once distinguished himself from the barbarian, and the Arab had felt himself an resume individual at a time when other Asiatics knew themselves only as members of a race. It will not be difficult to show that this result was due above all to school essay the political circumstances of Italy. Stephen Greenblatt, Renaissance Self-Fashioning, 1980, p. 256 : It seemed to me the college very hallmark of the Renaissance that middle-class and aristocratic males began to feel that they possessed such shaping power over their lives, and I saw this power and the freedom it implied as an important element in my own sense of myself. But as my work progressed, I perceived that fashioning oneself and career, being fashioned by cultural institutions-- family, religion, state-- were inseparably intertwined. In all my texts and documents, there were, so far as I could tell, no moments of pure, unfettered subjectivity; indeed, the human subject itself began to seem remarkably unfree, the ideological product of the relations of power in a particular society.
Whenever I focused sharply upon resume post college, a moment of apparently autonomous self-fashioning, I found not an epiphany of identity freely chosen but a cultural artifact. If there remained traces of free choice, the choice was among possibilities whose range was strictly delineated by the social and ideological system in force. In our modern ideology, we take it as natural the sense of ourselves as unique, autonomous individuals. We have a belief in our unique personal identity. Modern Art History has reinforced this ideology with its construction of the narrative of art around the work of identifiable artists whose styles are seen as manifestations of the respective artists' unique personalities. Self-Portraits of artists like Rubens, Rembrandt, and Van Gogh are major monuments in this cult of artistic individuality. Where traditional narratives of Art History have explicitly or implicitly assumed the emphasis on artistic individuality beginning in the Renaissance as the rubrics for middle natural emergence of the self, recent critical theory has emphasized that the conception of the self is in actuality a construction with a specific social history.
We consciously or unconsciously fashion our identities out of the alternatives our cultural contexts provide. Any discussion of the early modern conception of the artist needs to focus on post college the remarkable series of self-representations by illinois ged essay the German late fifteenth and early fifteenth century artist, Albrecht Dürer. From our experience with later European art, we take for granted the subject matter of the self-portrait. While Dürer was not the resume first artist to produce a self-portrait, he can be arguably claimed to be the first artist that returned to this subject matter throughout his career. In these images Dürer constructs or, in media the terms of post college Stephen Greenblatt, fashions his identity as an artist [for a discussion of the idea of self-fashioning, see the excerpts from an article by John Martin]. Joseph Koerner, in dissertation his book entitled The Moment of Self-Portraiture in college German Renaissance Art , has written: The earliest self-portrait we have of Dürer is a remarkable silverpoint drawing he did in illinois 1484 when he was thirteen years old. This portrait is post college, frequently paired with what is perhaps a self-portrait of dissertation Dürer's father, a goldsmith:
The elder Albrecht Dürer, shown holding a piece of resume his goldsmith work, represents himself as a craftsman. Compare this representation to our discussion of Rogier van der Weyden's painting of St. Luke Drawing the Virgin: Significantly, Rogier shows St. Luke making a silverpoint drawing. Dissertation? Implicit in this painting is the demonstration of St. Resume? Luke's mastery of media this difficult drawing technique. Dürer's silverpoint self-portrait is undoubtedly an exercise for him as part of his artistic training. The primary documents associated with Dürer's father clearly bring out his mentality as a craftsman. Read for example the resume college excerpt from the Dürer family chronicle and a letter Albrecht Dürer the illinois Elder sent to his wife. Resume Post? The double portrait of his mother and father that the younger Dürer painted in 1490 should probably be seen in relationship to other double portraits of husbands and wives as managers of household economies engaged in the craft industry:
Reverse of the portrait of Dürer's father. Essay Writing? It represents the union of the Dürer and Holper families' arms. The idea of the craftsman participating in a household economy is suggested by resume post college an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem (c. Dissertation In Social Media? 1440/5-1503): Dated about resume post college 1490, the print represents the artist with his wife Ida and can be seen as a statement of partnership of the husband and wife managing a successful workshop specializing in the production print copies of the works of other engravers. Of the over 600 signed prints by Israhel, 90% of them can be identified as being based on the work of others. 58 of his prints, for example, copy the work of Martin Schongauer.
In their important study The Renaissance Print , Robert Landau and Peter Parshall make the claim that Israhel van Meckenem can be counted as the most historically important northern printmaker at work around 1500 (pp. Le Role Du Conseil Constitutionnel Dissertation? 56-57). This seems to us an resume post college odd claim when we consider the apparent lack of originality of Israhel van Meckenem's work, but Landau's and Parshall's point has merit when the wide dissemination of his work is considered. He saw the potential of marketing prints as a commodity. Making a marketable commodity was thus the persuasive essay rubrics for middle priority of college Israhel van Meckenem's shop over originality.
A double portrait of the artist and his wife dated 1496 by an artist known as the Master of Frankfurt again documents the world of the household economy of the illinois craftsman. Post? The arms of St. Luke along with the motto Wt Jonsten versamt ('gathered from joy') above in the fictive frame document membership in le role du conseil dissertation the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke. Post? The flowers held by essay 2009 lady and in post college the vase also refer to the guild. Career Essay? In 1480 the Antwerp painters' guild had merged with Chamber of Rhetoric known as ' De Violieren ('The Stock-Gillyflowers'). The lady's hand prominently displays her wedding ring while she holds on to what appear to be prayer beads much like what Dürer's parents hold in their double portrait. The details of the still life on the table and their clothing are signs of their relative prosperity.
The pewter jug, tin plate, wooden handled knife, and ceramic vase are certainly not the gold and silverware of an aristocratic table but suggest middle class wealth. Their value resides in the quality of their manufacture rather than the resume intrinsic cost of the materials used. Eating With A Busy Lifestyle? The painter's mastery of illusionistic painting is attested to by the flies painted as if they had landed on the surface of the painting. Like the birds that were fooled by Zeuxis's painting of grapes, the flies appear to be fooled by the illusionistic representation. The painting attests to the quality of the master's work and the success of his well managed workshop. This painting perhaps served as a demonstration of the shops wares placed in the window of the shop. The reference to post college a workshop window with a ledge like that shown in the painting of the goldsmith by Petrus Christus was enhanced by the original format of high school having the painting protected by shutters. The partnership of the husband and resume, wife managing a successful workshop suggested by healthily with a busy lifestyle both the Israhel von Meckenem print and the Master of Frankfurt painting is echoed in a letter from Albrecht Dürer's father to his wife Barbara: This close partnership provides a striking contrast to the apparently distant relationship between Dürer himself and his wife Agnes. When they got married, Agnes had the expectation of being the wife of post college a master and helping him in the management of a workshop [see excerpt of Pirckheimer letter written in 1530].
It is persuasive, significant that there is no double portrait of Dürer and his wife Agnes comparable to the Israhel von Meckenem print, the painting by the Master of Frankfurt, or Dürer's own portrait of his parents. In fact there are relatively few portraits of Agnes in all the work of Dürer. Contrast these representations with the self-portrait that Dürer painted in 1498 that is now in the Prado collection: Inscription: Das malt ich nach meiner gestalt / Ich war sex und zwenzig Jor alt/ Albrecht Dürer (I painted this from my own appearance; I was twenty-six years old) This painting was done after Dürer's first trip to Italy in 1494-95 and resume, the year before the publication of his famous edition of the Apocalypse. In 1498, Dürer had been elevated to a status rivaling that of a member of the illinois upper social circles of the city, the Ehrbaren , or wealth merchant. Compare this portrait to the attitudes he expresses in resume post college a series of letters he writes to his friend Willibald Pirckheimer during his second trip to Italy. Note especially the following statement of regret about returning back home to Germany after his stay in Italy: How I shall freeze after this sun! Here I am a gentleman, at illinois home only a parasite.
Read Joseph Koerner's discussion of this self-portrait. In 1500, Dürer painted his famous self-portrait now in Münich: Inscription: Albertus Durerus Noricus ipsum me propriis sic effingebam coloribus aetatis anno xxviii (I, Albrecht Dürer of Nuremberg painted myself thus, with undying colors, at the age of twenty-eight years) While Dürer in resume post college the 1500 portrait does not wear the fashionable dress of the 1498 portrait, his clothing with the fur collar can be compared to dissertation that represented in the 1524 engraving of his friend and Nuremberg patrician, Wilibald Pirckheimer. College? The contrast in dress between the two self-portraits could be perhaps compared to illinois the contemporary contrast between Gucci and Brooks Brothers, with one showing contemporary fashion and the other a traditional sign of high status. It has long been known that this self-portrait is based on a convention for representing Christ that can be found in Netherlandish art like this image of the resume college Holy Face associated with the with work of Jan Van Eyck: Van Eyck's image can be linked to resume college a tradition of Pantocrator images found in Byzantine churches like the following one on the left from the church of Daphni built about 1100 just outside of Athens and two from persuasive essay for middle school, Sicily (Monreale and Céfalu) from the end of the 12th century: Pantocrator from Daphni. Pantocrator from Monreale in Sicily. Pantocrator from Céfalu in resume college Sicily. Essay Writing Contest 2009? (text in Christ's book is John, 8, 12)
Notice how the resume post Byzantine images and the Dürer Self-Portrait share details like the lock of hair extending down the center of the contest forehead and the prominent position of the right hand. Post? This image of illinois ged essay Christ as Pantocrator, or ruler and judge of the world, is a descendent of the so-called acheiropoetai, the images not made by human hands. Read Koerner's account of this painting. In 1522, Dürer created a dramatically different self-representation in a lead point drawing of college himself in the guise of Christ as the Man of media Sorrows: Compare this drawing to Dürer's painting of the Man of Sorrows from 1493-94: While strictly not self-portraits, I would like to consider two other images as self-representations. College? One is essay school, a drawing of an artist drawing a nude that was used as an illustration of a perspective device in Dürer's Painter's Manual of 1525: This image has been the focus of much discussion in contemporary theory.
Read the excerpts included on the page dedicated to this image. The other image is the famous engraving dated to 1514 entitled Melancolia I : The principal figure can be identified as the female personification of melancholy. This temperament became associated during this period with the creative artist. This can thus be seen as a spiritual self-portrait of Dürer. Number,weight, and measure. Self-Portrait, 1484, silverpoint on prepared paper.
Albrecht Dürer the Elder, Self-Portrait , 1484, silverpoint. Self-Portrait , c. 1491, pen and post, dark brown ink, Erlangen. Self-Portrait at Age Twenty-two, c. 1493, pen and brown ink, Metropolitan Museum, New York. Self-Portrait , 1493, Louvre, Paris. Self-Portrait, 1498, Prado, Madrid. Self-Portrait , 1500, Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Detail of the 1500 Self-Portrait. Adoration of the illinois ged essay Trinity , 1508-11. Adoration of the resume Trinity, detail: Copy of the Heller Altarpiece , original 1508-9.
Detail of the Heller Altarpiece. Feast of the Rose Garlands, 1506. Detail of the Feast of the Rose Garlands. Sel-Portrait as the Man of Sorrows , 1522. Man of persuasive for middle school Sorrows , 1493-94. Melencolia I , 1514, engraving.
Artist drawing a nude, from A Course in the Art of Measurement and Ruler , 1525.