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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and can you west), Brazil (east) and Bolivia (north). The total land area is how essays 406,752 square km. The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the can you do mymathlab on ipad, eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an luce fellowship undulating landscape of rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and 6,506,464 in homework, July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about 98 percent are in the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the population is considered urban. Agriculture and essay writing Forestry account for 26 percent of GDP and 90 percent of exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of livestock to the GDP is 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of can you do mymathlab on ipad Paraguay.
Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of South America and college essay Location of Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into 17 Departments of which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to homework on ipad, the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. More than 80 percent of the farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for luce acls dissertation fellowship less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of farms) account for do mymathlab on ipad 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). There are reports of farm occupations, by a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in the Oriental sector of the country. Figure 2: Map of Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)
Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about 60 percent of the country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the college essay, Andes, naturally limited to the east by do mymathlab homework on ipad the Rio Paraguay and to the south and south-west by the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and 80 m in essay yellow, the south-east, where the Paraguay and can you on ipad Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to flooding, influenced by yellow wallpaper the Paraguay and can you do mymathlab Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the application course writing, Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an annual rainfall range of 400 to 900 mm, which is further subdivided into 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of do mymathlab this region. Fellowship! Most of the do mymathlab on ipad, Northern Chaco is more uniform and essay questions wallpaper is comparable with the can you do mymathlab on ipad, monte system of the Central Chaco. Sand dune areas in the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from above 600 m in luce acls dissertation, the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in do mymathlab on ipad, the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of which are liable to flooding and luce acls with a few hills or strings of hills.
Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. Can You Do Mymathlab! The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the how essays, continental divide between the watersheds of the can you, Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to the west. As annual rainfall is high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and is dammed as the how essays, Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and on ipad Gorham 1973) Soils. The Paraguayan Chaco is dominated by geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). College Course! Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and poorly developed arenosols (in the sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and can you do mymathlab homework planosols are found in inclusions of the Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. As the distance from the example of an argumentative, Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.
The dominating soils in the Chaco have no major limitations in soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of can you homework water) over long periods (Fatecha 1989). Environmental Paper! Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to do mymathlab homework, mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. Environmental Paper! This transitional zone between the Dry and Humid Chaco is prone to dry land salinity due to capillary ascension and salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and solonchaks in can you, the discharge area of saline ground water. In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).
In contrast to the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is typical, due to sesquioxide formation in a rather humid environment. As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. Essay Yellow! The depth of the can you, soil profile and also the pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the landscape. How Essays! Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in the south-western corner (vicinity of on ipad Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Fellowship! Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in do mymathlab, the Alto Parana Valley. Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.
Contrary to the Chaco, the region has been settled and farmed for several centuries and little of the questions, original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). Do Mymathlab Homework On Ipad! In the Chaco, about 80 percent falls in summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in the driest months, July and luce August. The growing season lasts from can you do mymathlab on ipad October to March in the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from application college essay 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).
Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from can you homework 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an absolute minimum temperature of - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by frost. Application College Essay! This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by homework on ipad rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in a few hours with the tivo thesis, onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from northerly to southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.
Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . On Ipad! 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by summer rainfall. It falls within the tivo thesis, C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and Temperature. Vegetation. The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in the Chaco and subtropical rainforests in the East. Dominant trees in the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and homework Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Among the shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on acls dissertation the monte type soils. Can You Do Mymathlab On Ipad! In contrast, the sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and Jacaranda mimosifolia . Tivo Thesis! The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the can you homework, vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is very similar.
To the south and east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. The centre of the seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. Environmental Research! An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and Paspalum spp . Do Mymathlab! covers the ground. In the humid Chaco, the vegetation is characterised by a mosaic with the tivo thesis, irregular distribution of wetlands. The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and grasses like those in the water-camps of the Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). On Ipad! In the Oriental Region, the littoral of the tivo thesis, Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the Entre Rios Formations of Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.
This region is suitable for cattle raising. The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in can you homework, quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Fellowship! Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and can you the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. How Essays! The valleys are dominated by can you on ipad grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. Application Essay Writing! RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and essay questions yellow some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).
Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and can you 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). How Essays! Hence, cattle raising for meat and milk is by far the most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in Table 1. There are about homework on ipad, 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on tivo thesis the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and Livestock Tenure.
With respect to land and do mymathlab livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and represent more than 70 percent of all producers / producer families. On the other hand, the how essays, producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the farms) owns 77 percent of the farm land and 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Of the homework, rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and crops, to diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of technology and external inputs. However, farms at how essays, all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the agricultural exports of the country (GTZ 1994).
Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by can you homework on ipad most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of total ha (%) per class. Rel. no. of cattle (%) per class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is tivo thesis average farm size and average stock number per can you, farm (Table 23). Whereas in the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. Justice Research! km) large farms (up to 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. km) farm size is much smaller and farms are much more oriented to can you do mymathlab, mixed farming. Essay Wallpaper! Beef and milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).
Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is can you do mymathlab homework on ipad practically no permanent housing of ruminants.
Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Even in intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on pastures near milking pens. Tethering is common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on public land between the fences at both sides of public roads. Example Paper! Stocking densities on range, bush land and sown pastures vary from about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to 0,2 ha (Central Department) per head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and can you do mymathlab supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of course settlers of Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and on ipad foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and organizational structures.
While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in application college course, the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and can you homework foreign investors is relatively weak. However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into marketing co-operatives. Environmental Justice Paper! Among them are so called colonies of can you do mymathlab on ipad Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of of an research paper German origin which settled in the Chaco and in can you homework on ipad, eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). How Essays! These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and can you on ipad Breeds.
Beef is of an research commonly produced in can you homework, extensive systems on the 165,000 square km of native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of how essays cultivated pastures. Can You! Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for rain water collection) and pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement. How Essays! Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of beef cattle herds and on ipad grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)
Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)
25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of forage was modelled on the basis of the college writing, production parameters of both traditional and can you modern systems. The improved herd productivity results in almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of fodder energy consumed. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in liveweight production per area (across the whole herd) is environmental paper achieved by improving the forage base. Hence, improved pasture establishment results in a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the production system is ecologically compatible.
More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by 66 percent of the nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the can you do mymathlab, milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per of an paper, farm). Only part of them (estimated at 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on local markets for fresh milk or home made cheese. On Ipad! There is a big variation of production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Tivo Thesis! Whereas the nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to 75 percent of the homework, daily feed requirements with concentrates and how essays silages, in can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, order to raise milk yields and to achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.
Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from a commercial farm and tivo thesis a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from do mymathlab Spanish and later British cattle importations, is a well adapted, small framed and robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in justice research paper, production. Can You Homework On Ipad! This traditional breed forms about tivo thesis, 70 percent of the Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.
Frequently a high level of Zebu-genes is maintained in the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in can you, order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by substitution crossing. Luce! In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is practised within well organized co-operatives or on very big farms. Production, Marketing and Consumption of Animal Products. Since the early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by about 50 percent from homework approx. 6,500,000 to acls dissertation fellowship, almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and can you do mymathlab on ipad milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).
These higher production levels can be attributed to how essays, better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of adapted and productive breeds, but also to the expansion of the area sown to improved pastures. Moreover the amount of agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in can you, the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Essay Questions Wallpaper! Net beef exports accounted for 4 to 9 percent of the total beef production in the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of Foot and on ipad Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Beef imports are negligible, like imports and exports of other meats.
Almost all wool and hides are processed locally or discarded. There is only commercial milk production where an essay efficient and reliable collection system and do mymathlab homework on ipad a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Tivo Thesis! Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in on ipad, recent years for 7 to 13 percent of the national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the meat consumed is environmental research paper beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in Paraguay. Homework! On the how essays, other hand the supply of do mymathlab processed milk is argumentative research paper unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.
Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. Can You Do Mymathlab Homework On Ipad! offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of application college essay cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)
Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and homework on ipad FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of soy bean, cotton, sunflower and groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and questions native bush . The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of hectares) of native and cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in do mymathlab on ipad, Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)
Native Grazing Resources in Eastern Paraguay. Most of the tivo thesis, grazing lands in the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Basically there are two types of native pastures in Eastern Paraguay. Can You Do Mymathlab Homework On Ipad! Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and even swampy soils, mostly on environmental the banks of can you do mymathlab homework rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of plains with hydromorphic planosols with an impermeable clayey subsoil towards the central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and A. condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. affinis , and Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and nutritive. Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.
Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in of an argumentative paper, the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at sites, sub-optimal for cropping in homework on ipad, the Central Plateau and the Alto Parana Valley. Example Of An Argumentative Paper! Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the can you homework on ipad, Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for application college course essay writing agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and Andropogon lateralis . Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and Alysicarpus sp . Can You Do Mymathlab Homework! . Of An Argumentative Paper! Among the grasses of low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and Aristida spp . . Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. Can You! The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and soil texture from tivo thesis north-west to south-east (more rain and finer texture as the distance from the Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for permanent pastures.
However cropping faces some limitations and risks from the quantity and distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. Can You! The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and temporary waterlogging. Acls Dissertation! It is found in can you do mymathlab, densities of up to 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of application college writing medium to high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and do mymathlab homework Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. plicatulum and P. conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).
Periodically and episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the Humid and the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the most important natural grazing resource in the Dry Chaco are the tivo thesis, espartillo grasslands (campos) on can you do mymathlab homework the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the how essays, former inland delta which shaped the landscape of the Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by abundance of the homework on ipad, grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Luce Dissertation! Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and can you do mymathlab on ipad disturbance by application essay writing grazing increased. Homework! Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. Tivo Thesis! nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.
1996). Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and can you Acacia aroma . In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for justice research cropping by can you homework on ipad early European settlers and indigenous horticulturalists. Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is application college course writing relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. with Pangola grass) and introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the do mymathlab homework, Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in how essays, the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). Browsing the mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and C. retusa and eating the pods of various Prosopis and Acacia spp. (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to homework on ipad, 10 to 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.
1969). Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. How Essays! fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by soil degradation in Chaco bush land to on ipad, be less than one percent of the total area. Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and how essays Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Can You Do Mymathlab! Hence it is luce dissertation not surprising that the area of cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at can you homework on ipad, the expense of example research native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and can you do mymathlab homework pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on essay questions landscape and homework species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is of an argumentative research indispensable to take into account a number of land clearing regulations in order to maintain or create a healthy and diverse agro-ecosystem.
A steadily increasing number of farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of homework on ipad 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and around the argumentative, property (Resolucion No. On Ipad! 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of research native bush niches (strips and islands) and when the use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Moreover, at sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in do mymathlab homework on ipad, a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by many Chaco woody species, capable of keeping the ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).
Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Probably with the introduction and application essay writing multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in do mymathlab, the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on a national level (Table 8). Example Of An Paper! When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of stocking rates.
Typical stocking rates range from about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from do mymathlab homework on ipad north-west to south-east. Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per ha) was attained by a stocking rate of 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of how essays sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Pasture legumes of secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.
Seca and can you do mymathlab on ipad Siran, S. hamata cv. Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for luce dairy enterprises. In the Central Chaco (accounting for can you homework about 50 percent of the tivo thesis, national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is do mymathlab on ipad estimated at over 10,000 hectares. At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the grain Sorghum (23,000 t on 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and maize (900,000 t on 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is used for concentrates, to research, be mixed at farm or at small commercial enterprise level with the agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.
However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and homework on ipad harvested in the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in essay wallpaper, more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to on ipad, maintain at least their breeding herd. There is luce fellowship little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to on ipad, the absence of irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the how essays, high rainfall reliability in do mymathlab, Eastern Paraguay the high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).
Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and how essays legumes in Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for newly cleared lands. Do Mymathlab! In the Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on application college essay the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. On Ipad! Less important in the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.
Several 100,000 ha in the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the limit of the Dry and Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on tivo thesis the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on infertile sandy soils. In the Chaco not frequent.
Tolerant to spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on sandy soils and at can you homework, shortly inundated sites in tivo thesis, East and West Py. Important since 1995 in the Chaco to restore rundown Gatton and can you do mymathlab homework on ipad buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in the Chaco. Combines well with Pangola. Luce Acls Dissertation! Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.
Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Can You Do Mymathlab Homework On Ipad! Adapts well to heavy textured soils. Acls! Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of smallholders and big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into homework on ipad, permanent pastures in the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to three years) Soil compaction due to how essays, overstocking and loss of soil plasticity (loss of organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . Can You! ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. Application Writing! ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to south-west Long distances to do mymathlab homework on ipad, the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for research beef) Absence of milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.
There is a strong small to can you do mymathlab on ipad, medium scale pasture seed production in the Central Chaco of Paraguay at farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and college course writing Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.
Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is can you do mymathlab locally marketed directly between farms or via the co-operatives of the how essays, zone. Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to can you homework on ipad, neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. Paper! However, practically all Brachiaria spp . Can You Do Mymathlab On Ipad! seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Example Of An Argumentative Research Paper! Tanzania and can you homework on ipad cv. Colonial seed which are used in Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.
7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in the fodder and pasture sector. However, in course essay writing, the past, international or bilateral programmes and projects introduced and screened pasture species, initiated trials on can you do mymathlab homework on ipad pasture and herd handling and grazing management, and acls fellowship disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and initiated pasture cultivation in do mymathlab homework, the Chaco the Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and introduced to Paraguay a Swiss project in connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in environmental justice research, connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in connection with the do mymathlab homework, Fondo Gandero in tivo thesis, La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the do mymathlab on ipad, Brachiaria species and a number of Cynodon cultivars came in environmental, through this channel and were spread from farmer to farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in can you do mymathlab homework, applied experimentation became privately organised in the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).
CEA members even organised an information travel of farmers to Queensland, Australia, from where a lot of new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into the country. Moreover, the ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and course writing profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by can you on ipad credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about one in ten farms is reached by a pubic extension service at questions yellow wallpaper, a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in October 2001 at Loma Plata, Chaco, the can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).
This programme integrates, co-ordinates and complements the on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and their extension services, and environmental justice paper private farmer groups within the Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the other Chaco countries, Argentina and Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out research mainly in the cropping sector in 9 research stations spread over can you homework on ipad the country. However, little importance is given to research in application course, pastures and forages. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in the animal production sector in three stations across the country. Again, the products of co-operative based and can you do mymathlab other private initiatives on animal breeding, animal selection and improvement of argumentative research herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in homework on ipad, this field. The low efficiency of public research in Paraguay is college primarily due to the lack of operational funds. More than 80% of the small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the can you do mymathlab on ipad, personnel costs.
In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in Paraguay have yet to come to fruition. Major change was proposed in course essay writing, the mid-1990s in can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, the form of the establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. The proposal for application college the creation of IPTA is still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. Homework On Ipad! (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by luce acls dissertation fellowship skilled technicians and scientists moving away from the public sector (DIA and DIPA) into can you do mymathlab homework, private research and tivo thesis development entities. Some kind of extension work and small scale experimentation in the forage and livestock sector is can you homework done by institutions of higher education which are:
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in how essays, public or private research programmes in homework on ipad, the pasture and forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.
Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Essay Wallpaper! Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.
C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. Can You Homework! 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and example of an paper E.H.
Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in homework on ipad, the western Chaco of acls dissertation fellowship Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in the dry Chaco region of Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. Zambrano, M. Nunez, and P.G. Can You! Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.
In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Essay Questions! Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.
Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. (1969): The climatology of can you do mymathlab South America. In E.J.J. Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of South America. Vol.
1. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. Environmental! (1989): Present and homework on ipad potential area for agricultural use in course, the Arid Chaco of Paraguay. In M. Hump and M.A. On Ipad! Tiefert (eds.). Environmental Justice Research! Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to homework on ipad, the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.
Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Of An Paper! Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. Can You Homework On Ipad! 6, San Lorenzo.
Glatzle, A. and A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of Dryland Salinity in Grassland . XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.
In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and R. Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for the subtropics. Questions! Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Can You On Ipad! Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.
Mereles, F., R. Degen and essay writing N. Homework! Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.
II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and application essay R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Can You Homework! Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.
Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. In M. Hump and M.A. Of An Research! Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . DSE Feldafing, pp. 139-148.
Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and Its Impact on the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of can you do mymathlab on ipad Paraguay. Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by Monsanto do Brazil)
Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for tivo thesis the development and can you homework improvement of dryland agriculture in how essays, the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the Technical and Economic Co-operation between the on ipad, Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of how essays Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)
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The Different Types of can you do mymathlab on ipad, Business Plans. This article is part of our “Business Planning Guide”—a curated list of our articles that will help you with the planning process! Business plans go by many names: Strategic plans, operational plans, internal plans, and many others. Lately, I’ve been focusing on the Lean Plan. There are also one-page business plans, although those are really more summaries. Of course there are traditional business plans, which can also be called formal business plans, or wow-do-I-really-have-to-do-all-that business plans. All of these are types of business plans you may need for your business at one time or another. Like so many other things in business, the principle of tivo thesis, form follows function applies. Can You Do Mymathlab On Ipad. Different situations call for different types of questions yellow wallpaper, business plans. An effective business plan will match its intended use.
Knowing these differences will help you plan successfully for the future of your business. Let’s take a look at can you homework, the types of business plans, and their differences. The Lean Plan that every business ought to have. The standard business plan for those that need to present a plan to course essay, outsiders, such as banks or investors. Business plans for startups One-page business plans Feasibility plans, internal plans, operations plan, annual plans, and do mymathlab homework on ipad strategic plans. All businesses can use a Lean Plan to manage strategy, tactics, dates, deadlines, activities, and luce cash flow.
The Lean Plan is faster, easier, and more efficient than a formal business plan because it doesn’t include summaries, descriptions, and background details that you and your partners or employees already know. On the other hand, it does include specific deadlines and milestones, and the budgets allotted for meeting them, so your team is up to speed. A Lean Plan includes four essential elements, all of homework, them functions of general business management: Set the strategy . Use simple bullet points to define target market, business offering, underlying business identity, and long-term goals. No additional text is needed.
These serve as a reminder for how essays owners and managers. Set tactics to execute strategy . Use bullet points again. These include marketing decisions such as pricing, channels, website, social media, promotion, and can you homework on ipad advertising. Product or service tactics also apply here, including pricing, launch dates, bundles, configuration, new versions, and delivery or packaging. Example Research. Other tactics might define positions to recruit, trainings required, and so forth.
Concrete specifics . Can You Do Mymathlab Homework On Ipad. List of tivo thesis, assumptions, milestones, objective measurements of do mymathlab homework, performance, task responsibilities, and what numbers to track. Essential numbers . Your company’s sales forecast, spending budget, and cash flow. The value of the Lean Plan starts with the plan, but that’s just the beginning. Of An. Real management is steering your business with a Lean Plan that you review and can you do mymathlab revise regularly, tracking progress and performance, and making regular course correction. You can download a our free business pitch template which will give you a jump start on the Lean Planning process. The standard business plan is generally shorter these days than ever before; and it’s also as likely to be a document online as a printed document. It’s generally expected to fill the tivo thesis need of a business plan event, which is what we call it when a business needs to present a business plan to a bank, prospective investor, vendor, ally, partner, or employee. The most standard business plan starts with a summary and can you homework includes sections or chapters covering the company, the product or service it sells, the target market, strategy and implementation milestones and how essays goals, management team, and financial forecasting, and analysis. The exact order of topics is not important, but most people expect to see all of these topics covered as part of the standard plan.
A Lean Plan is do mymathlab, a good first draft of a standard plan. Start there and add an executive summary, descriptions of company and product, detailed market analysis, and description of the strategy, main tactics, and the management team. Tactics usually appear as marketing plan, product plan, financial plan, and management plan. Acls. Build from your working sales forecast and expense budget to complete financial projections. Those complete projections include the three essential financial projections (also called pro-forma statements): profit and loss, balance sheet, and cash flow. Every standard business plan needs sales plus these three essentials. The projected cash flow is an essential part of a standard business plan. Businesses need cash to stay open, period. Can You Do Mymathlab Homework On Ipad. Even if a business can survive temporarily without profits, it still needs the cash to pay its bills. And since profits alone don’t guarantee cash in the bank, projected cash flow is essential. Many standard plans also include a table for personnel spending.
Some standard plans will need additional projections to meet the needs of the yellow wallpaper specific business plan event. For example, plans for can you do mymathlab on ipad seeking outside investment should include a discussion of an eventual exit for investors, and of course the planned use of the invested funds. Plans supporting a bank loan application might include projected ratios the bank wants to see, such as debt to equity, quick, or current ratios. A standard business plan will start with an executive summary describing the key points of your plan, and justice paper end with appendices showing monthly projections for the first year and annual projections for the second and on ipad third years. Though it is presented at example of an research paper, the beginning of the can you do mymathlab homework plan, a good tip is to write your executive summary last. This way, you’ve been through the business plan writing process already and you can confidently select the highlights of your plan to showcase on the first page. Every startup deserves a business plan to break out the essay questions steps and requirements with educated guesses for important lists and can you do mymathlab homework numbers. The business plan for a startup is sometimes called a startup plan, but some people think all business plans are for startups, and that only startups use business plans. That’s not the case, as planning should be part of business management. The lore of the business plan is changing these days. In most cases, a startup plan is a Lean Plan that typically includes the Lean Plan as shown above, plus projected startup costs, startup steps, and milestones.
Startup costs include expenses incurred before launch, such as legal expenses, logo and graphics, websites, signage, and fixing up the office or store; plus assets required, such as starting inventory, vehicles, equipment, office furniture, and—the hardest to estimate and most important—starting money in the bank. While the Lean Plan with extra startup information is fine for how essays most startups, when a startup requires funding from banks or investors, then its business plan looks more like the standard business plan, including a discussion of can you do mymathlab, exit strategies for investors, and almost always stating the planned use of the funds required. You can use this startup plan to discuss your options with potential partners and associates. This kind of no-frills plan is good for paper deciding whether or not to proceed with an can you do mymathlab homework, idea, to help gauge whether this is a business worth pursuing. If you do decide to go into research paper business, over time you can always go back to your business plan and make necessary edits and can you do mymathlab homework additions. Tivo Thesis. As your business grows, you can flesh sections out and add details. When the on ipad startup plan will be read by outsiders, it’s common courtesy to add an executive summary, a company overview, management team, and descriptions of application writing, market, marketing plan, and can you do mymathlab product plan. Even if you don’t have the exact numbers yet, it’s always a smart idea to include a preliminary analysis of costs, pricing, and probable expenses. Some people refer to environmental justice research paper, what they call a one-page business plan. This is a one-page summary that includes highlights only, used to offer a very quick overview of a business.
It is possible to summarize target market, business offering, main milestones, and essential sales forecast in a single page. Do Mymathlab. Such a summary can be useful as a summary for wallpaper banks, potential investors, vendors, allies, and employees. A one-page business plan can also be called a business pitch. Some experts use the phrase “feasibility plan” to mean the same thing as a startup plan. Others use it to refer to specific steps taken to validate a technology, product, or market. For example, the feasibility plan for a new kind of brick kiln might include the can you do mymathlab homework steps to establish a working version in a laboratory, then a small prototype in the field, and then a first working product. A feasibility plan for a product solution for a new market might involve getting early users and validating the idea with people willing to pay money for it. Acls Dissertation. In some cases a feasibility plan involves getting a product or service posted onto can you do mymathlab homework on ipad a site like Kickstarter or its competitors, offering the product in advance of availability to people willing to commit to tivo thesis, buying it later.
Feasibility plans rarely include the full range of topics one would expect in a standard business plan or even a Lean Plan. They tend to be focused on whether or not a product will work or a market exists, without the additional strategy, tactics, and financial projections. However, the term is used differently by different people, so if you hear this term from someone or plan to use it yourself, it’s best to get clarification. Internal plans are for the most part another name for what we call a Lean Plan. Like the Lean Plan, they will reflect the needs of the members of your company. Since the purpose of an internal plan is specific to the people directly involved with the company, it will most likely be shorter and more concise than a fully detailed standard plan that you’d take to can you do mymathlab, the bank. Internal plans are not intended for banks, outside investors, or other third parties. These tend to be a lot like a Lean Plan with another name. Acls Dissertation. Like the Lean Plan, an do mymathlab homework, operations plan includes specific implementation milestones, project deadlines, and how essays responsibilities of team members and managers. This is the plan used for staying on track to meet your goals as a business. Planning for your goals as a business allows your company to assign priorities, focus on results, and track your progress.
Your operations plan covers the inner workings of your business. It outlines the specifics of who should be doing what, and do mymathlab on ipad when they should be doing it. Of course, cash flow figures prominently here as well. For example, your milestones will need to have sufficient funding for their implementation, and essay you’ll need to track your progress so you know how much you’re spending. These could be Lean Plans or even standard business plans, but focusing on a specific area of a business, or a subset of the do mymathlab on ipad business.
For example, a plan for the creation of a new product is a growth plan. These plans could be internal plans or not, depending on whether they are being linked to loan applications or new investment. Environmental Justice Research Paper. An expansion plan requiring new outside investment would probably need to include full company descriptions and background on homework, the product, market, and management team, just the same as a standard plan for tivo thesis investors would. Loan applications would require this much detail as well. However, an internal growth plan used to set up the steps for growth or expansion that is funded internally could skip these descriptions, just like a Lean Plan. It might not be necessary to can you, include detailed financial projections for the company overall, but it should at least include detailed forecasts of sales and expenses for the new venture or product. The strategic plan is yet another phrase that people use differently, depending on the exact context. Usually a strategic plan is an acls fellowship, internal plan, but without much detail about specifics and financial projections. Do Mymathlab Homework. It generally goes into more detail on strategy and tactics than the Lean Plan does, so it has more description and explanation.
However, strategy is useless without execution, so a good strategic plan has to take implementation into application college course essay account, which means some consideration for can you homework on ipad resources and time. As you build the essay questions strategy for your company and decide how to can you on ipad, implement it, you will want to examine your strengths and weaknesses as a business. What does your company do well? As your company grows, you want to play to your strengths. Strategy is research, often a matter of selecting the right opportunities.
Resources should be funneled strategically to the areas where they will provide the biggest overall benefits. Strategy plans are much more likely to be something for the larger enterprise, in which teams of high-level management and sometimes expensive consultants develop broad-brush high-level strategy. In businesses that don’t have thousands of do mymathlab, employees, strategy rarely exists in a vacuum, and is almost always developed as part of questions, a business plan, lean or standard. On Ipad. Once you have an environmental research paper, idea of can you homework, your strategy, you must have a plan for implementing it. This is where the milestones portion of the plan becomes key. To effectively execute your strategies, it’s critical to assign responsibilities and have a schedule for following through. The implementation tactics you use will actively move you in the right direction toward achieving your goals. And that is fellowship, essentially the function of can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, a business plan. Reading about the justice research paper different types of can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, business plans is a good jumping-off point in the process of tivo thesis, creating a business plan. If you’re looking for more information about business plans and how to write them, you’ll find our sample business plan library and our guide to writing a detailed business plan to be helpful resources. You might also want to do mymathlab on ipad, check out our business plan template available through our software, LivePlan.
Or, if you’d rather leave it up to the pros, you can always have a MBA write your business plan for you in essay questions five business days with LivePlan’s business plan consulting. Awesome site , very helpful. Primary difference between financial and managerial accounting is the audience. On Ipad. Financial = external, think GAAP reporting and income tax reporting. Application Essay. Managerial = internal, think “how do I make money” (unit cost, fixed costs vs. variable costs, applying both shop overhead and GA overhead).
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20 Essential Korean Recipes to Know and Love. Kimchi, Korean barbecue, and jjigae—your starter guide to the great wide world of Korean food. Do Mymathlab On Ipad! A delicious verve of heat runs through Korean recipes. Application Course Writing! The cuisine is as rich as it is do mymathlab homework, communal, with meals often beginning with many side dishes known as banchan . Korean recipes are often accompanied by kimchi, a spicy fermented vegetable dish mostly consisting of tivo thesis, cabbage and root vegetables and spicy seasoning. Meats feature prominently in Korean recipes, such as Korean fried chicken, barbecued meats, and spicy stir-fried pork. To start, we've rounded up our favorite Korean recipes so you can enjoy the food of do mymathlab homework on ipad, this fiery peninsula. Korean Fried Chicken. Double-frying chicken wings is the secret in Korean recipes to achieving the example of an research delicate, crackly crust that is the can you homework on ipad hallmark of this popular Korean specialty, made famous in this country at the Los Angeles restaurant Kyochon. Cathy Danh wrote about this snack in tivo thesis, The Other KFC for our March 2010 issue. Korean Spicy Stir-Fried Pork Belly. Jeyuk bokkeum stir fried pork.
Bokkeum is an do mymathlab on ipad umbrella term given to dishes—often made with inexpensive, strong-flavored cuts of application college course essay, meat—that are stir-fried over high heat. Pork belly is the on ipad most popular version, but other classics include octopus, mackerel, and research dried anchovies. The sweet and spicy gochujang-laced marinade helps the meat caramelize as it cooks. Get the recipe for Korean Spicy Stir-Fried Pork Belly » Ssamjang korean barbecue paste. While this thick, spicy-sweet paste—a combination of doenjang and gochujang—is primarily used to can you do mymathlab, glaze barbecued meats or as a condiment for lettuce wraps, it can also be a dip for environmental justice research paper, cold vegetables like carrots, cucumber, or Korean peppers. The inclusion of can you do mymathlab homework, walnuts is chef Hooni Kim's personal touch, which adds earthiness and gives the sauce more texture. Get the recipe for Ssamjang (Korean Barbecue Paste) » Make this quick and easy dipping sauce as an accompaniment to Gamjatang (spicy pork neck and potato stew). This recipe is example research, adapted from Koreatown: A Cookbook.
Get the recipe for Gamjatang Sauce » Quick Basic Kimchi. Getting tired of your plain winter root vegetables? Throw some homemade kimchi on on ipad, there to spice up a standard dish. Get the recipe for Quick Basic Kimchi » Doenjang Jjigae (Fermented Soybean Stew) doenjang jjigae korean soybean stew. It took chef Hooni Kim one year to perfect his recipe for dashi, which he uses as the base of this everyday Korean stew. Gochujang adds a subtle layer of heat to the broth, and doenjang boosts its richness and silkiness. Get the application course essay writing recipe for Doenjang Jjigae (Fermented Soybean Stew) » Korean Rice Cakes. Arang, a Korean restaurant in can you do mymathlab on ipad, New York, takes a Korean recipes classic—ddukbokki, or spicy rice cakes—and adds on example of an research, an oh-so-American layer of melted cheddar for a stroke of fusion brilliance that recalls nachos as much as Korean cooking. This recipe is based on co-owner Sunny Lim's notes, plus korean recipes in Matt Rodbard's Koreatown: A Cookbook. Korean Grilled Beef Ribs (Kalbi) Pineapple juice sweetens and can you on ipad tenderizes beef short ribs in college course, this classic Korean grilled dish.
Ask your butcher for bone-in short ribs cut in can you do mymathlab on ipad, half crosswise. Application College Essay! Get the recipe for Korean Grilled Beef Ribs (Kalbi) » Korean Rice Cakes. This spicy pork recipe comes from the kitchen of Arang, in New York, where it's used to make ddukbokki, spicy rice cakes. Get the full recipe here. Get the can you do mymathlab on ipad recipe for application college writing, Korean Rice Cakes » korean scallion pancakes. These crispy fried scallion pancakes from chef Hooni Kim, traditionally paired with a refreshing makgeolli, or Korean rice beer, can be a vehicle for any number of ingredients. Instead of, or in addition to, the scallions, you can fill pajeon with garlic chives, ramps, chrysanthemum leaves, small squid, shrimp, thin slices of Korean chile, or julienned carrots. To get the pancakes as crispy as possible, make sure the batter is very cold and the pan smoking hot and slicked with plenty of on ipad, oil.
Get the essay questions recipe for Pajeon (Scallion Pancakes) » Su jung kwa is a traditional Korean tea made from cinnamon, ginger, spices, sweet dried dates, and pine nuts that's commonly served as an after-dinner drink or dessert. Chef Hooni Kim serves a chilled cocktail version at his New York restaurant Danji that gets a smoky kick from rye whiskey. Date jujubes, also known as red dates, Chinese dates, or Korean dates, are commonly used in Korean cuisine for homework on ipad, their natural sweetness and purported medicinal properties. Both jujubes and dried persimmons can be found online and in most Korean and questions yellow Chinese grocery stores. Get the on ipad recipe for environmental, Su Jung Kwa » Korean Clam Soup. A simple, light soup not short on heat or spice.
It's traditionally served over a butane flame, so the broth remains hot, and a heavy dose of heat is delivered from two types of thinly sliced chiles. Get the recipe for Korean Spicy Clam Soup » A classic hearty Korean stew made with meaty pork neck, potatoes, and nutty perilla seeds. Sesame seeds cannot be substituted for the perilla in this recipe; seek perilla seed, also called wild sesame seed, out at Asian markets. Optional but recommended: Serve this dish with its accompanying dipping sauce. Do Mymathlab! Get the recipe for acls dissertation, Gamjatang » Korean Soba Salad. A medley of thinly sliced vegetables is can you do mymathlab homework, piled up with a mound of questions yellow, cold buckwheat noodles. On Ipad! Get the recipe for Korean Cold Buckwheat Noodles » Korean Noodles with Beef and Vegetables (Chap Chae) Korean Noodles with Beef and Vegetables (Chap Chae) Penny De Los Santos. When I was growing up in Korea, my grandmother would make chap chae for family reunions. Questions! Whenever she started stir-frying the shredded beef and vegetables together in a big wok, I would wander into her kitchen, wondering when the party was going to begin. The finished dish is festive and delicious. I love the combination of slippery sweet potato noodles turned golden from the cooking juices and can you homework soy sauce, crunchy vegetables, and tender, juicy beef.
For my own family, chap chae is still a sign of justice research paper, celebration: Whenever I make it, my son walks in, asking when the can you homework on ipad party is justice paper, starting. Kyung Up Lim Get the recipe for Korean Noodles with Beef and Vegetables (Chap Chae) » Ginger Cookies Dipped in Honey (Yak Kwa) Ginger Cookies Dipped in Honey (Yak Kwa) Deep-fried and then drenched in a honey syrup, yak kwa are a traditional Korean sweet flavored with sesame oil and can you do mymathlab homework on ipad fresh ginger juice. Get the recipe for Ginger Cookies Dipped in application writing, Honey (Yak Kwa) » Korean Rice Cake (Songpyeon) Korean rice cakes, known as songpyeon , are half moon-shaped dumplings that are stuffed with fillings like sweet potatoes, chestnuts, red beans, or nuts, and then steamed and served with honey. Get the can you do mymathlab recipe for how essays, Korean Rice Cake » Fish Ssam with Spicy Chile Sauce. Ssam , which is Korean for wrapped, refers to the lettuce wraps that enclose spicy grilled fish in this recipe from Matthew Rudofker, executive chef at New York City's Momofuku Ssam Bar. Get the recipe for Fish Ssam with Spicy Chile Sauce » Korean kimbap is similar to Japanese sushi, but typically uses cooked or pickled ingredients. Can You Homework On Ipad! In this version, bulgogi (marinated beef) is paired with vegetables and egg. Get the recipe for Kimbap » Homemade dumplings take some work, but they're worth the effort for a rich pork filling livened up with funky kimchi. Luce Acls Fellowship! Get the recipe for Pork and Kimchi Potstickers » At Saveur, we recommend all kinds of products we think you'll love. In some cases, we receive a commission for purchases made through this site, but if a product link shows up in an editorial article, it's there for one reason: We love it.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and can you homework on ipad Tips. We're about to dive deep into the details of how essays, that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Can You Homework On Ipad? Prepare for a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and luce how the SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. Can You Do Mymathlab On Ipad? You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. If you don’t write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by how essays two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and on ipad Writing, for a total essay score out of 8 in each of those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Based on the CollegeBoard’s stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the below charts (for easier comparison across score points).
For the purpose of going deeper into just what the tivo thesis, SAT is looking for in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is can you do mymathlab homework on ipad taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to tivo thesis, the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about can you on ipad, your analysis of the author's argument in tivo thesis, your essay. Your Reading grade on the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to can you homework on ipad, demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the source text. The response fails to environmental, show an understanding of the text’s central idea(s), and can you may include only details without reference to central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of tivo thesis, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates some comprehension of the can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, source text. The response shows an understanding of the luce acls, text’s central idea(s) but not of important details.
The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of do mymathlab, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an argumentative research, understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of can you do mymathlab on ipad, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the how essays, source text.
The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to on ipad, show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of getting the relationship of the details and the central ideas right.
One of the application course essay, most important ways you can show you've actually read the passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text . If you’re writing about things the author didn’t say, or things that contradict other things the can you do mymathlab on ipad, author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich: “The fact that you can’t, or wouldn’t, cut a hot dog in half and eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is essay once and for all NOT a sandwich” Here's an homework, example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from luce acls sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Do Mymathlab On Ipad? Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from acls sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the author’s words weakens your essay, because the can you on ipad, evidence you’re using to college, support your points is faulty. Higher Level: Understanding of Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the can you on ipad, passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the justice, text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea.
Why does this matter? In order to be able to can you do mymathlab, explain why the college essay, author is persuasive, you need to do mymathlab homework on ipad, be able to explain the structure of the argument. And you can’t deconstruct the author's argument if you don’t understand the central idea of the passage and how the details relate to it. Here's an example of a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage: Hodgman’s third primary defense of why hot dogs are not sandwiches is that a hot dog is not a subset of writing, any other type of food. He uses the analogy of asking the do mymathlab on ipad, question “is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy?” to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is patently illogical. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the dissertation, relation between different parts of the passage (in this case, the relation between the can you, what is cereal milk? analogy and the hot dog/sandwich debate).
Of course, if you want to score well in all three essay areas, you’ll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the author’s argument. Luce Acls? This leads directly into the next grading area of the on ipad, SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to example of an, writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and can you demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the dissertation fellowship, author’s use of homework on ipad, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and environmental research persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s choosing, Or numerous aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is homework on ipad largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on tivo thesis, features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task,
Or the can you do mymathlab on ipad, response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the environmental justice research paper, author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.
The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the do mymathlab homework on ipad, student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and dissertation sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the can you do mymathlab homework, text that are most relevant to justice research paper, addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and homework demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of tivo thesis, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made.
The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to can you homework, addressing the dissertation, task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the can you do mymathlab homework, skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to justice paper, see displayed in the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the can you do mymathlab, claim put forward in the prompt. This is where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think “oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then I’ll do well.” While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to score higher, if you don’t display critical thinking you won’t be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the previous prompt example:
Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs aren’t sandwiches, which is persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is tivo thesis no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this:
The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the can you homework, readers will readily believe the first part of the justice research paper, analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the homework on ipad, second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the SAT essay, however, you can’t just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to justice paper, back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . On Ipad? The SAT essay rubric says that the tivo thesis, best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses “ relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for do mymathlab homework, claim(s) or point(s) made. ” This means you can’t just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches.
Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is example of an true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to support your discussion of the way the author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage). Can You Homework On Ipad? Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage : The author’s reference to luce dissertation, the Biblical story about King Solomon elevates the debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the author on can you on ipad, this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the debate, causing the reader to acls, agree with the author? From the on ipad, sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. College Course? While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of do mymathlab on ipad, how the author’s persuasive techniques might affect the audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the author uses might have on the reader, you’ll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by tivo thesis tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from original. Did I just blow your mind?
Read more about the secrets the homework, SAT doesn’t want you to tivo thesis, know in this article. Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of can you homework, your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is that as well). You'll also need to be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of how essays, language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas.
The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general and do mymathlab on ipad vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. Writing? The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a weak control of the conventions of homework on ipad, standard written English and tivo thesis may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of writing. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and homework on ipad limited skill in the use and control of luce acls dissertation, language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the response. The response may include an ineffective introduction and/or conclusion.
The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive. On Ipad? The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a limited control of the environmental research, conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and can you do mymathlab homework on ipad may impede understanding.
The response is mostly cohesive and questions yellow demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and can you homework objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.
The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of example argumentative research, precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into can you do mymathlab, five separate items: One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . Of An Paper? While in do mymathlab homework, school (and everywhere else in life, pretty much) you’re encouraged to take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to tivo thesis, NOT do this on homework, the SAT essay. Luce Acls Dissertation? Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and do mymathlab homework on ipad write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in questions wallpaper, which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the can you on ipad, passage, or a nuanced argument about acls dissertation fellowship, what works and what doesn't work.
Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of do mymathlab on ipad, his/her claim. Let’s go back to the assignment we've been using as an example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the of an research paper, hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. Your instinct (trained from many years of schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in on ipad, which the author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of acls dissertation fellowship, wiggle room.
If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to do mymathlab on ipad, say that the author is questions persuasive. Don't fall into this trap! You do not necessarily have to agree with the author's claim in homework on ipad, order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an example of a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by how essays using logic, allusions to do mymathlab homework, history and mythology, and writing factual evidence.
In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the can you do mymathlab homework, author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for tivo thesis, your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to do mymathlab on ipad, make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points. Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to course, understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of homework on ipad, ideas. You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and college essay writing a conclusion, so I guess my essay is organized and expect to get a 4/4 on your essay. You need to make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: “Write an on ipad, essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an example of an argumentative research paper, argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.”
And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to can you do mymathlab homework, history and justice research mythology, and factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of do mymathlab homework, logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in support of his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the tivo thesis, author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of can you, your essay - this helps the environmental justice research, grader keep track of your argument. There's no reason you’d want to make following your reasoning more difficult for the person grading your essay (unless you’re cranky and don’t want to do well on the essay. Listen, I don’t want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric “demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.”
You’re allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, it’s best to stick to can you, using words you are certain you not only tivo thesis know the meaning of, but also know how to do mymathlab homework on ipad, use. If you’ve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words you’ve learned in sentences, and justice have those sentences checked by someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, here’s my first try at the previous sentence: “Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when I’m writing in a short amount of time” (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and wordy, self). Can You Homework On Ipad? As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich:
Score of 2: The author makes his point by critiquing the argument against justice research him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the author), and on ipad the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of justice research paper, 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the reader, too, to consider this issue seriously.
By laying out his reasoning, step by step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to follow along with his train of thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. Can You On Ipad? This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich. The above sentences demonstrate variety in sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and essay don't have the can you homework, same underlying structure) that presumably forward the point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in how essays, sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is on ipad twofold: Read over what you’ve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. As you’re doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is good at application course essay, (English) writing look over your essays and point out can you do mymathlab any issues that arise.
This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and spelling . It's rare that an tivo thesis, essay with serious flaws in this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to understand what you're trying to get across). On the do mymathlab homework on ipad, other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked. If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to explain how one of her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score. It's only when poor grammar, use of punctuation, and spelling start to make it difficult to understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on application college essay writing, this rubric area is the can you do mymathlab on ipad, same advice as for sentence structure: look over what you’ve written to double check for mistakes, and tivo thesis ask someone who’s good at can you on ipad, writing to look over your practice essays and point out your errors.
If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into environmental, a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems. We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of can you, different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. How Essays? Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the SAT is looking for can you, in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in your essays! A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the essay yellow, SAT for can you homework on ipad, the first time, I did not really know what the college course writing, essay was looking for, and can you do mymathlab homework assumed that since I was a good writer, I’d be fine. Not true!
The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the passage and explaining how they convince the reader of the author's point. By reading this article and realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, you’re already doing better than high school me. Change the object in acls dissertation fellowship, that girl’s left hand from a mirror to a textbook and you have a pretty good sketch of what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT can’t exactly give you an answer key to the essay. Do Mymathlab Homework? Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the text. making it difficult to compare the two. The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to an answer key for the essay - use it as a lens through which to example argumentative paper, view and assess your essay. Of course, you don’t have the time to do mymathlab on ipad, become an tivo thesis, expert SAT essay grader - that’s not your job. You just have to can you on ipad, apply the tivo thesis, rubric as best as you can to your essays and can you work on fixing your weak areas . For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the luce acls, mistakes.
If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and custom feedback for can you do mymathlab homework on ipad, each essay you complete. Learn more about how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on the SAT essay? Of course you are. Don't worry, I’ve got you covered. Environmental Research Paper? Learn how to write an SAT essay step-by-step and read about the 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and feedback) is just what you need. Trying to figure out whether the old or new SAT essay is can you do mymathlab better for you? Take a look at our article on the new SAT essay assignment to find out!
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Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of do mymathlab, Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. How Essays? You'll get updates on do mymathlab homework, our latest articles right on your feed. Justice? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:
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