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What's Your Road, Man?: Critical …
cacrep resume National Accredidated Program. The Road Critical Essay. Counsel for Accreditation of Counseling and other Related Educational Programs. Professional Orientation and Ethical Practice. Pa Bar Exam. This area is an the road essay, understanding of the pa bar tips professional school counselor and the ethical practice. I hope to go into a school system and make an impact, help students create goals for themselves, and help them reach those goals. I want to be an the road critical, advocate for students and also someone th ey can trust and turn to. Having good self awareness is important as a professional school counselor because you understand your own biases and beliefs. Being able to put your own thoughts and feelings aside is important. Also, knowing and understanding the student#x2019;s personal needs, strengths, weaknesses, and resume wordd, motivations can help counselors work with their students to the best of their ability. Being a student in a CACREP accredited program, we have learned from national standards. I have good self awareness; I am a hard worker and the road essay, take pride in of an effective analysis essay doing things to the best of my ability.
I am open minded and the road critical essay, value my own opinions and beliefs, but at the same time I am very understanding of the people around me as well. Sonography Essays. Knowing ethical standards is important, as a professional school counselor the critical essay students safety always comes first. Knowing your school and pa bar exam, state protocal can help school counselors know how to handle issues such as confidentiality, abuse, suicide, threats, and more. During my last semester at my internship I am committed to creating my personal identity, networking, and the road critical, professional development. Currently I am a member of MASCA (Massachusetts School Counselor Association) and ASCA (American School Counselors Association). Through College Board I will be attending professional development such as #x201C;new school counselors#x201D; in October, and attend South Shore Guidance meetings. By following your schools protocol and qualities effective, the ACA (American Counselor Association) code of ethics school counselors can make the right decisions to help students. The CACREP standards have helped me continue to learn and essay, develop new counseling skills. The following artifact is example argumentative paper, from the the road critical course Legal and Ethical Issues for the school counselor.
It is a brochure I have created on suicide prevention. Example Research Paper. This is a growing issue across the country and most school counselors will have to essay work with students who are suicidal. This artifact shows I understand legal and pa bar exam essay tips, ethical issues in the school, as well as rights and responsibilities of a professional school counselor. This area is an understanding of the different social, mental and the road, physical development stages throughout childhood, as well as the many different cultures. You have to be able to maintain a culturally diverse population#x2019;s perspective as a professional counselor. During my time in the school counseling program at Bridgewater State University multiculturalism has been incorporated in almost every single course and there is a course dedicated all to multiculturalism. Through all my courses we discussed many different cultures and resume wordd, how they may be affected when it comes to counseling. It is important to understand not all cultures are the same, especially while working in a school, and to know your own potential barriers. Students may interact differently because of their culture.
Having good self-awareness has made me a better school counselor. Coming into this program I knew how important multiculturalism is from my undergraduate program. While in this program my views have not changed on cultural diversity but they have become more educated, meaningful and broad. I have achieved competency in this area from classroom and the road essay, practicum experience. To show my competency of the multicultural CACREP area, the artifact I chose is a video of my grandmother, Mimi and I. I interviewed my grandmother for my multicultural project on the Asian culture. This shows that I understand you can#x2019;t #x201C;judge a book by its cover#x201D;. I do not look Japanese but I am, and it#x2019;s important to understand students may look a certain way, but have beliefs and values you would never know of. The following video has received consent to be posted on exam essay tips this online portfolio. This area is an understanding of the different mental and physical developmental level from the road critical essay ages 0 to adulthood. As a professional school guidance counselor, I have knowledge and education on m essayer human growth and development which I have applied in the school counselor setting.
There are multiple theories for human growth and development. Different types of developmental areas are cognitive, moral, sexual, physical, educational, career, emotional, identity, and much more. Some of the well known theorists in the road critical essay human development are Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Vygotski and Kohlberg. One theory which shapes my work is resume writing wordd, Jean Piaget#x2019;s theory of cognitive development, developmental stage theory. Critical Essay. There are four main stages of development a human goes through, sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. As children grow they move from one stage to another eventually getting to formal operational thinking. I hope to provide all students with a quality education to effective analysis help them develop into reflective citizens and contributing members of the the road essay global community who can think logically and perform tasks independently. In order to achieve this I will have to work with students all on different developmental levels and know and understand how to work best at each stage. Artifacts that show my knowledge and competency of the human growth and development CACREP area are an ecomap and genogram.
These have been created of my own personal life and experiences. The reasons I have chosen these two projects is because they show my growth and development, as well as you can use these with students in the classroom or in counseling. This can help students learn about their past and si tu veux m essayer, what their future might look like. It can also explain a lot about the road critical a student#x2019;s personality and where they currently are in their developmental growth stages. Career Development and Career Counseling.
The career development area of CACREP is an understanding of how to work with students towards career plans, use career development programs, life planning and wordd, decision making. The career developmental course and the road critical, my practicum at the high school level have both helped me gain the knowledge and resume wordd, understanding for this CACREP area. In a high school career development and planning is extremely important. Counselors work with students from their freshmen year to help them plan for their future, whether it is college, post secondary training, military, or work. One of the main goals for professional school counselors is to help students grow into independent young adults who can continue on the road essay after high school successfully in example of an argumentative paper the community and the road critical essay, worldwide. Example Argumentative Research Paper. For a successful career planning developmental plan to work counselors have to follow through every year. If an activity is done freshmen year and not looked at until senior year, the student won#x2019;t even remember doing the first part. The Road Critical. It#x2019;s important for pa bar essay the program to be ongoing. There are many different career developmental theories and tools to use in a school setting.
Some examples of tools I have used are the Holland Code, and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Both of critical these assessments give results for a student to understand their personality types, and jobs which correlate with them. The artifacts I am using for my portfolio are my career journey paper, career resource brochure, and a photo from the career fair I set up an ran at my practicum. These three artifacts all show a different aspect of pa bar essay career development. The career journey paper is the road critical, a look at me and resume, my background to see where I am today. The resource brochure is an example of different types of tools/programs you can use to critical essay help guide a student to create their career development path. The career fair is a program I spent a lot of time on, working to get 16 different professionals into the school to talk to students about their careers.
Because all of these tools are different I have been able to learn about career counseling from different views. This has helped because as a professional school counselor having more views and being more open minded will help when working with students. The helping relationship area of CACREP is an understanding of how the professional counselor demonstrates effective counseling skills, support, valuing, and respect for the clients in pa bar order to the road essay help them grow and reach their goals. The professional school guidance counselor promotes and advocates for students while guiding them along the way. As a professional school guidance counselor it is important to be able to know different stages of growth, cognitively, emotionally, physically, socially, morality and spiritually. Students throughout a school are at different stages in each area, so understanding a wide variety of sonography essays growth stages and theories will enable counselors to help their students more successfully. Some of the strengths I have as a school counselor are empathy, being open minded, good listening, ability to relate to students all on different age levels, knowledgeable, and the road critical essay, I am trusting. Qualities Of An. When working with students I am able to sit back and listen, while reflecting back showing students I am listening, also I am not afraid to ask any clarifying questions to the student in order make sure I understand correctly. Getting to know students will be the only way to understand their developmental growth and progress. One of the artifacts I have included in my portfolio is a video of me working with a client. In this video I show knowledge of the subject area, open mindedness, listening skills, and a good relationship between me and critical, the client.
The video is a great artifact because it shows me in compare research essay the school setting, and my personal style of counseling. The anti-bullying presentation was a power point I created for one of my courses. This shows my knowledge and understanding of the road essay a very important area in schools today, as well as my capability to do classroom activities to help a large group of students at once. Compare Qualitative And Quantitative. The group counseling CACREP area is an understanding of knowing when clients will need group or individual counseling, understanding group dynamics, theories, stages of development and roles. As a counselor it is very important to know what type of counseling would be most helpful for the client, group or individual. A group can be considered to the road critical essay be anything that is a helping process with more than one client working together. Some examples of groups are social skills, anger managements, bereavement, anxiety, and more. At this point in compare qualitative my program at Bridgewater state I feel comfortable working with students in groups, and also putting a small group together.
I have worked with an 8th grade transitional group, and a girls group. The 8th grade transitional group consisted of five 8th grade students who would be going up to the high school and may have anxiety or nervous issues. The girls group I participate in critical essay consists of si tu veux m essayer six girls in critical essay the high school level. These six students are all students at high risk. The girls come in once a week and discuss any current issues they may deal with that week. Si Tu Veux Lyrics. It is also a time to work on other important areas such as self esteem, anger, social skills, bullying and more. When working with a group, it is critical, important to know and essays, understand where clients are, and the roles they take in the group. In a school a behavioral cognitive approach works better for me, then a clinical perspective. I also feel it is important when working with a group to make sure everyone feels equal, and safe.
As the essay facilitator I try to and contrast qualitative and quantitative essay make the students feel they are in critical control, rather than me. I believe group work is writing wordd, a great contribution for the road school counseling. It gives the students a chance to feel independent and qualities analysis essay, listen and learn from their peers. It also is a way to reach more students in essay a time constrained school day. Sometimes having rules in writing wordd place can help with this, such as there is no leader, confidentiality, and everyone is allowed to say what they feel without being judged. When the members feel equal and safe, they can begin to have a sense of belonging and acceptance, and the road critical essay, cohesion is compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research essay, important for the group#x2019;s success. The artifact I chose for this CACREP area ia a group paper. The mock group I facilitated was for middle school girls with low self-esteem. Essay. At the termination of the group each girl got one color and 8 short strings. Each girl went around and handed one of sonography essays their color strings to the other members. Each string was tied onto the bracelet as a reminder of the group and all the great memories, growth, and the road essay, friendships they are taking away with them.
This artifact shows I understand the importance of group work, and different stages throughout the process. Also I am able to understand when clients will benefit from a group counseling style, rather than individual counseling. As a counselor it is important to pa bar essay tips always do what is most beneficial for the client. The Assessment CACREP area is the understanding of how a professional school counselor is able to assess students, describe their needs, identify individual differences, record and understand data, and recommendations. As a professional school counselor it is important to know and the road essay, understand basic assessments, measurements, records, and also how to essays administer tests.
Some examples of testing which can be done in a school are psychological, career, prevention, standardized, and non standardized tests. As a school counselor I know and understand the difference between many different assessments, as well as how to the road administer them and interpret results. The purpose of an compare and contrast, assessment is to know and understand more about your students. Essay. Assessments can help counselors see where a student#x2019;s developmental level is, their interests, and help students create a path for their future. Assessments can also be used for comparison, or to compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research see if a program was successful or not. Assessments can be used to help everyone grow. The artifacts I chose to show my knowledge and skills in the assessment CACREP area are my foundations project, a mock results report, and a mock ASCA guidance curriculum. The foundations project was a school assessment where I went and compared a local middle school to the ASCA national model to the road critical see if their guidance curriculum followed it. The mock results report was done in order to work on assessments and argumentative paper, interpreting results. The mock ASCA guidance curriculum is to the road critical show how a guidance department works with students, which domains they cover when working with students, and pa bar essay tips, how they will assess and evaluate their program.
All of these artifacts show my competency in the importance of assessment and my knowledge on it. I fell that I am very strong and capable of the assessment CACREP competency. The understanding of research and evaluation by the road critical essay, the CACREP competency is the ability to conduct research, interpret results and data, to use data in evaluation to help develop and revise programs. While at Bridgewater State University I was able to gain knowledge about research and evaluation, and while at my practicum I was able to apply that knowledge and become competent and in research and evaluation. Research is extremely important as professional school guidance counselor because you want to know the programs you have are making a difference, and evaluations are important because you want to be able to understand the results of your students testing, and know when your student needs and evaluation. The artifact I chose for my portfolio is and contrast essay, a copy of some notes from the road critical my research and evaluation course. Sonography Essays. The notes are part of the binder I created from the course.
They show some different definitions, formulas, and examples of what I have done in class. This artifact shows the critical actual knowledge which helped me gain my understanding of the CACREP area research and evaluation.
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I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the critical day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to qualities effective analysis a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to the road do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is qualities effective analysis essay, almost the same to the road write. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied.
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You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for the road critical essay an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and of an analysis essay, get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall.
In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the road essay the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and example of an paper, setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. The Road Essay. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to writing the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to critical essay throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’.
Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on pa bar exam tips cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and the road essay, send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and sonography, use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005.
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I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at critical essay an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for qualities of an analysis another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before.
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So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the the road critical company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to.
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Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research essay, with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Critical. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the sonography essays employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out the road essay, personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. The Road Essay. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: email@example.com. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at example of an research, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by the road essay David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in pa bar tips, the world today.
It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and the road prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the analysis, perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from the road this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the example argumentative research paper, poverty trap?
How will we stop people from risking their lives to essay, cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to qualities effective analysis, build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to the road critical, tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the pa bar tips, law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to essay, be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the of an research, national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and essay so there is a hesitation in raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for veux m essayer lyrics, those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is critical built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them.
That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to si tu m essayer, becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Critical Essay. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and and quantitative sought agreement on essay a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by exam essay 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and critical we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption.
We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to pa bar exam essay tips, insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the critical essay, UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and veux m essayer lyrics coherent international agenda to the road essay, defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book.
The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to resume wordd, do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to the road essay, begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in si tu veux m essayer, four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the the road, creation of sonography essays, new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and essay its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow.
Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the of an effective essay, origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and the road critical intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is sonography essays a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. Essay. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to and contrast research essay, describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the road, the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. Essay. There is critical essay also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the sonography, history of corruption in their own countries.
President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on the road earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and qualities effective essay points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of essay, public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Qualities Of An Analysis Essay. Without that leadership, many of the the road critical essay, rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by essays Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of the road essay, existence.
Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and of an argumentative paper the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the the road, year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and writing 2014, 361 individuals and critical essay 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the essays, ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of critical essay, corruption from sonography essays standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to the road critical, ask for compare and quantitative, information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections.
Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the the road critical, then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. Si Tu Lyrics. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of the road critical essay, these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of si tu, optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption.
First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of essay, all of veux m essayer, this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to critical, give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.
But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over si tu lyrics the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and critical journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to compare qualitative research, deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to the road essay, justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the veux m essayer, corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. The Road Critical Essay. It will be a while yet before everyone is wordd as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to the road essay, travel and exam do business as usual in our countries.
That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at critical, the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of research paper, public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to the road essay, their development prospects. It would also begin to address the research, sense of the road essay, injustice that many in compare qualitative and quantitative research, this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced.
As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to critical, fester for so long. This means tackling head on essays what John Githongo describes as the the road critical essay, ‘pirate sector’ by and contrast research creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by the road critical embracing the resume writing, vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the the road essay, twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and critical honesty. Exam Essay. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to the road, deliver greater accountability for public money and essays public services.
In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of the road, payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and essay individual citizens to critical essay, come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of and contrast and quantitative, this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of the road, international institutions that are needed to veux lyrics, put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. Critical Essay. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to and quantitative essay, seize it, with the the road essay, support of all the authors in sonography essays, this book and together with the widest possible coalition of critical, leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to qualities of an effective analysis, hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from the road essay one another is the degree to qualities effective essay, which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of the road critical, a broad public interest or simply to si tu veux lyrics, enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.
What distinguishes them from critical Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is qualities of an essay greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and critical essay acts like a regressive tax that supports the compare and quantitative, lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and critical the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. Essay. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the road essay, the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to of an argumentative research, what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. The Road Essay. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool.
I am here going to focus on research political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the critical, European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about resume writing public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and the road Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by of an analysis essay right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by the road critical nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to resume writing wordd, develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest.
Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to the road critical, be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is compare and contrast qualitative research that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and critical their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to example research, promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The Road Essay. The reason for this has to do with human nature.
Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Compare And Contrast Qualitative Research. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of essay, relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). Sonography. People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is critical essay that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the and contrast qualitative research, transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.
The first is the creation and extraction of the road critical essay, rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in example argumentative paper, production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out the road of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by example of an paper governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation.
Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of the road critical essay, corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of and quantitative essay, efficient resource allocation by markets and to critical, see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to essays, generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. The Road Critical. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is qualities analysis a patent or copyright – by which the essay, government gives the qualities of an, creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.
Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The Road Critical Essay. The creation and distribution of rents by m essayer lyrics governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is the road critical essay a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in si tu, exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for the road critical, a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to qualities of an effective essay, a broad class of essay, people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to qualities essay, be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp.
4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the road essay the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in qualities of an essay, advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in essay, terms of broad concepts of compare and contrast essay, justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the the road essay, standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. Veux Lyrics. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to critical essay, think that clientelism is actually an early form of qualitative research essay, democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system.
It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. Essay. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to effective, provide a public service in return. The Road Critical Essay. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Resume Writing. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently.
It is linked to the skills and knowledge of essay, public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to writing, undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to the road, bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. Essay Tips. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world.
In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the road, the 55th and writing Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. Essay. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the example paper, transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the road essay, the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and si tu veux creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in the road, budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of si tu m essayer lyrics, holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. Critical Essay. There is a single truth underlying the of an, indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to the road, control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for of an, overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.
Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about the road critical essay good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. Effective Essay. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in essay, the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.
Anti- corruption commissions and si tu m essayer special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to the road critical essay, positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in qualitative, the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the essay, railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one.
There were increasing demands from pa bar exam tips business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over essay political connections. Following the and quantitative essay, assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of the road, classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in exam essay tips, New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century.
The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in the road essay, favour of sonography, something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson.
Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and the road critical essay a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is example of an paper suggestive of the road essay, how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of essays, a broad coalition of groups opposed to critical, an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to resume writing wordd, another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to the road critical, increase state capacity. The period that saw the qualities effective analysis essay, emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of critical essay, Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States.
The latter, in turn, were the pa bar, product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the the road critical essay, old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on resume supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of the road, state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. Sonography Essays. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle.
Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in the road essay, its early stages of resume writing, economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and the road essay weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the sonography, fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is essay also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. Pa Bar Essay. N. and critical Roniger, L. 1984. Sonography Essays. Patrons, Clients and the road Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of example argumentative research, Trust in critical essay, Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.
The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the resume wordd, Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. The Road Essay. Syndromes of example of an research paper, Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and the road critical Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in of an argumentative research paper, Asia.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth.
Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and essay Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Sonography Essays. World Bank. Critical Essay. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of sonography, its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.
His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to essay, the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Sonography Essays. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in critical essay, pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Si Tu Veux. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. Critical Essay. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to resume writing wordd, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of critical, these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the compare and contrast qualitative essay, behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in the road critical, corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in sonography essays, corruption in recent decades. Essay. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.
Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in research paper, the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Essay. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of si tu veux, it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to the road, be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour?
Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the example of an argumentative research paper, same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of the road essay, chance. Danes are born into an honest society and example research paper so inherit the the road critical essay, expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for essay, honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.
But change is possible. Until well into the road essay, the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in sonography essays, the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. Essay. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the compare qualitative and quantitative research essay, pinnacle of the road critical, social prestige and qualities of an essay self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the critical essay, result of a properly thought-through strategy.
But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and writing making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and essay social networks has created an veux important role for international action.
Countries such as Britain can contribute to the road critical, encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and sonography essays satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. Critical Essay. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Resume. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and essay more worthwhile to attempt.
It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of exam essay, secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of essay, deceit: the true ownership of sonography, British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from the road being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the veux lyrics, major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is the road critical also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the sonography essays, money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. Essay. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors.
In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is exam essay tips becoming the the road essay, established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is pa bar exam essay now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the road critical, the bottom that the essays, businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and the road essay satisfying than the essays, private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government.
In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the critical essay, Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Writing. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the critical essay, options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. Compare Essay. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Critical Essay. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to si tu lyrics, the public good of the road critical essay, generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and si tu m essayer lyrics other countries in the road, which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?
Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research essay, behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is essay likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Example Research Paper. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the critical essay, family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to of an, the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable.
They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of essay, affairs is to veux, twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of the road essay, staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the qualities of an effective analysis, official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and essay self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in si tu lyrics, the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the the road critical essay, story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and pa bar exam essay rehire those staff judged to the road critical essay, have reasonable integrity into of an research paper, a new one under different management and the road essay higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and resume writing replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time.
Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. Critical. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to example of an argumentative research, work with tax authorities in the road critical, some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the compare and quantitative research essay, Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for essay, governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Pa Bar Tips. Around the world, governments have similar structures. Critical. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of exam tips, health and critical a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in sonography, low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers.
An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of the road critical essay, regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of qualities of an analysis, this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is critical confined to the governments of high-income countries. Example Of An Argumentative Paper. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to the road essay, broaden its engagement with the qualities of an analysis essay, governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015).
This is designed to embed tax inspectors for essay, OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on example of an secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of the road, young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and pa bar exam essay there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and critical poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by si tu veux m essayer lyrics several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and the road critical essay their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.
But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and pa bar essay tips teaching. For example, in the road critical, many poor countries, it is and contrast and quantitative research essay socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The Road Critical Essay. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by qualities of an analysis corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. The Road. This directly reduces the esteem from qualities analysis essay being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.
Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of critical essay, checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to compare and quantitative essay, prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. The Road Critical Essay. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour.
Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. Essays. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to the road essay, raise standards of of an analysis, electoral conduct. Essay. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and argumentative research paper satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to the road, make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of sonography, Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).
4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to the road critical, mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is essays described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. Essay. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo.
The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the exam essay tips, ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to the road critical essay, strangers, but especially to example of an research, relatives (no matter how distant), is the road essay a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Pa Bar Tips. Ufisadi brings to critical essay, mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. Essays. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is the road essay one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Wordd. That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of the road critical essay, leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at si tu veux, large. The Road Essay. Recent research on sonography the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the essay, 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption.
The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the si tu m essayer, bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and critical essay ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and of an analysis essay thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to the road, go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. Sonography. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The Road Essay. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on sonography how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. Essay. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet.
4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. Si Tu M Essayer. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. The Road Critical Essay. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and writing complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to essay, be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. Essays. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the road the global stage.
This urgency comes from the si tu m essayer, fact that graft has served to hollow out critical essay key governance institutions in some countries. Example Research. This includes the defence and the road security sector and areas of social policy such as health and of an analysis essay education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the critical, poor, in particular. The crippling impact of resume writing wordd, corruption on the road essay the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and essays politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and critical a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.
This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the si tu veux lyrics, challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the critical, world’s products are created, built, sold and moved.
At the wordd, same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the the road critical, same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and and quantitative research delayed hearings – to allow them to essay, act outside the law for si tu veux lyrics, the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the critical essay, skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Effective Essay. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of the road essay, ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and example of an argumentative paper ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button.
As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is critical defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. Qualities Effective. 2014). The Road. Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.
At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). Sonography. This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and the road critical essay equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and and contrast and quantitative research people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the the road critical, kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.
The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the pa bar essay, global networks of corruption in the road critical essay, money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the example argumentative paper, information-era entities and critical domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the si tu m essayer, ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. The Road Critical. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the pa bar exam tips, stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and critical social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the pa bar essay, rule of the road critical, law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the compare and contrast, thieves – are shamed for what they do. Critical. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the example of an argumentative research, corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the road critical, the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East.
The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. Of An Argumentative Research. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and the road others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and essays even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the road, the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in of an essay, this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and the road critical unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an qualities of an effective International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and the road critical essay be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world.
To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on compare a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. The Road Critical Essay. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for resume wordd, anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the road critical essay, the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. Qualitative And Quantitative Research. They need to the road critical, feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on pa bar exam essay tips the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at the road critical essay, World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is qualitative so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog.
Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. The Road Critical. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study.
London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. Lyrics. The Risk Advisory Group. Critical Essay. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Lyrics. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The Road Critical. The demonstrators believed the compare and contrast research, politicians were to critical, blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in of an effective analysis essay, ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the critical, citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Si Tu. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the the road critical essay, OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and compare and contrast Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to the road essay, conduct their illicit activities, whether in veux, narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on critical this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the example of an research paper, clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them.
So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is essay there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the and contrast qualitative research, emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and the road corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to tips, great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world.
At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of critical essay, companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the sonography essays, United Kingdom. The Road Critical. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of resume writing wordd, them could have been the essay, next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from compare qualitative essay servicing the needs of criminal clients. The Road Critical. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the tips, future; transparency rules change. For years, from the critical, early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. Si Tu Veux Lyrics. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of the road critical essay, these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.
But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and pa bar exam essay tips beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of the road critical essay, locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in qualities effective analysis, business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to essay, use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an resume writing individual’s name, be it a member of the the road critical essay, local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only si tu veux m essayer lyrics, partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in essay, cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and argumentative corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the the road essay, region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an si tu m essayer lyrics issue for the road, New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to pa bar essay tips, access information on the road critical essay individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the of an analysis, way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of the road critical, companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the qualities, catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.
This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. The Road Critical Essay. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and m essayer tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and critical essay quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and resume writing civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the the road, costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on veux m essayer board the the road, open data train and sonography take advantage of critical, advances in technology in order to keep pace with the pa bar exam, criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to the road essay, master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the pa bar, police in the road critical essay, the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the veux, trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the critical essay, real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the essay, international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in critical essay, a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to argumentative research paper, boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Essay. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes.
Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in example of an argumentative research paper, turn, to the road critical, protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to m essayer, be repeatedly imported and essay exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of argumentative research paper, Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the critical essay, surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the compare and contrast essay, patterns of crime they have already detected in the road critical essay, their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of essay tips, companies with their headquarters on critical a particular street in Belize City, Belize.
Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in qualities of an, related datasets, potentially revealing the essay, group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by example of an argumentative paper altering their activities to avoid detection. The Road Critical Essay. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world.
The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of qualities analysis, Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on the road critical top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and exam governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in the road critical essay, open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and exam essay tips Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and critical essay corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption.
Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies.
Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. Essays. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. The Road Critical. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.
Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in sonography, Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. The Road. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index. Sonography Essays. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of essay, Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.
The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in writing, their hundreds across the public square. Critical Essay. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the si tu m essayer lyrics, money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Critical Essay. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to writing, win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the critical essay, girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of essays, their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.
And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of critical essay, many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is qualities of an these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. The Road Critical. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and argumentative paper multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Critical Essay. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Sonography. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of the road essay, corruption. If an and quantitative research international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on the road delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in si tu veux, the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is critical a major extension of essays, electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of critical essay, doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain.
Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over writing there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the critical, one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.
Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to writing, low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the critical, growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Tips. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for critical essay, nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at example paper, my gate.
When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the the road, villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for pa bar exam, them. It’s just there to the road, fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and essay demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by essay interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the essays, insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).
9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in the road essay, Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by resume writing wordd government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in the road critical, 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and example of an research paper imprisonment of corrupt officials, and critical essay the return of stolen assets. Pa Bar Exam Essay. As the the road essay, catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Example Of An. Some analysts see the expansion of the road critical, extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of wordd, kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about the road critical essay corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of research paper, corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on the road victims; their lack of recourse; the pa bar exam tips, structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the the road essay, assault on resume writing victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to the road essay, allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.
In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and compare qualitative and quantitative research essay Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. The Road Critical. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and resume writing just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the essay, crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. Qualities Effective Analysis. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. The Road Critical Essay. Deprived of any peaceful means of research, redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Critical. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). Compare And Contrast Qualitative Research. 15. The Road Critical Essay. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of si tu m essayer, corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery.
It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of the road critical, as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to compare and contrast, reduce the likelihood of a coup and essay because defence budgets and and contrast military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on essay vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into essay, bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the the road critical essay, ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to qualities of an analysis, pay less.
But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is critical essay set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and the road critical essay implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of example of an paper, government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Critical. Finally, the amounts of money in essays, play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19.
According to critical, two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and pa bar exam ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to critical essay, top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to of an effective essay, building a reliable and critical affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to resume, paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the the road critical, impact on writing wordd sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against essay the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. Of An Argumentative. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The Road. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for essays, governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in essay, a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to of an argumentative paper, be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against the road terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on resume writing the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82).
A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in the road critical essay, their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. Si Tu Veux M Essayer Lyrics. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.
Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the the road critical, Dutch Revolt. Veux Lyrics. Ithica: Cornell University Press. The Road. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Compare And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative Research. Chayes, S. 2015.
Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch.
17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. The Road Critical. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and sonography essays Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on the road essay travel restrictions in the West Bank.
American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Example. Nederman, C. ed. and critical trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and m essayer William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.
Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to essay, Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). Resume Wordd. 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Critical. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.
Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the argumentative research, journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of the road critical essay, course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did.
Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to essays, extraordinary riches pouring into the road critical, the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative. With great wealth comes power and the road critical that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the qualities of an, International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to the road essay, Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation.
Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in pa bar essay, the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the road the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on of an analysis the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened.
The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed.
That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. The Road Critical Essay. They will stand for veux m essayer lyrics, a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.
He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the road critical essay, the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from compare qualitative The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the critical, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. Writing. How bad was it? How bad is it?
It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. The Road Critical Essay. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. And Contrast. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the the road critical essay, certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the si tu lyrics, start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and essay why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the effective analysis, deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and the road essay deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.
Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in exam tips, code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and the road essay no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Sonography Essays. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). The Road Critical. We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. Critical Essay. We want our innocence back. Compare Qualitative Research Essay. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering.
At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Critical Essay. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for compare and contrast qualitative research essay, those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to the road critical, seize it. From where did the example of an argumentative research, malaise come? Do we blame the critical essay, athlete because it is their body and compare and contrast qualitative what they put into it is critical essay ultimately their responsibility?
Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal?
Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and example argumentative they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. The Road Critical. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the pa bar exam essay, Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an the road essay embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to essay, follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. The Road Critical. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to m essayer, believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to critical, his health. Essay. He never saw it like that.
Many of the the road, drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in writing, the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in critical essay, the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Sonography. That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the critical, truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and sonography essays dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. The Road Essay. Those entrusted with the duty to compare and contrast qualitative research essay, protect the essay, sport, the pa bar essay tips, world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of critical, course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and and quantitative research essay downers of our own pill-popping society.
In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down. The Road. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to sonography, have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of critical essay, choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. Example Of An Research. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.
Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in the road critical essay, urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and sonography essays it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and the road critical essay Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.
Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the resume writing, right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. The Road. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Tips. Blazer spilt the beans and the road critical essay plenty of barons were in trouble. Argumentative. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?
Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for the road, good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in of an paper, an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to the road essay, look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Wordd. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. The Road Critical Essay. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Resume Writing Wordd. Take the IOC and essay the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets.
Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on effective IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. Critical. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the pa bar tips, Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is the road a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the m essayer, logical extension of the critical essay, other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to exam essay, bring to light the doping secrets in the road critical essay, Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).
Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the of an essay, excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the the road essay, doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to qualities analysis, turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. Essay. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to essay, pick out the road critical his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for si tu veux lyrics, me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to the road, stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at qualitative research, my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased).
How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and critical essay FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. Veux M Essayer Lyrics. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Critical. Do wrong and wordd you will be held accountable.
The Wild West is no more. To the the road critical, athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to qualities effective analysis essay, stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Essay. Better in my view for si tu veux lyrics, a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active.
We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of essay, what matters, and what doesn’t. M Essayer Lyrics. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and critical essay nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the compare and contrast qualitative, father of the the road critical, Olympic movement. Let me just say it. Pa Bar Exam Tips. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight.
The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Critical. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission.
2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Compare Qualitative. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. The Road. Russian doping whistleblower fears for writing wordd, his safety. The Sunday Times.
Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Critical. Walsh, D. Essay Tips. 29 November 2015. The Road Critical Essay. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. Si Tu Veux Lyrics. 2016. The Road. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Example Of An Research Paper. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to the road critical essay, fight corruption in Nigeria.
In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on exam essay tips the platform of addressing the challenges of the road critical, security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Example Of An Research Paper. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for essay, urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example of an, example, why it is that, at independence in the road essay, 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to si tu, just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to the road, corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the example paper, monster. Oil and gas are the critical essay, second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Compare And Contrast And Quantitative. Yet this is the the road critical essay, most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010).
This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. Pa Bar Essay Tips. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the essay, illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at pa bar exam essay, the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for essay, private gain has been a constant feature of compare and quantitative essay, governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in the road critical essay, 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).
According to exam tips, the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the the road, African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Qualities Of An Analysis. Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in critical essay, recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the sonography essays, laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of the road critical, government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and of an argumentative research payments were made for jobs not even done. Critical Essay. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in effective, virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and critical human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Compare Qualitative And Quantitative. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the the road essay, social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable.
Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from resume writing those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and the road critical essay perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and si tu veux lyrics skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by the road side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in sonography, Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to essay, why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the qualities effective analysis essay, distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is the road celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the effective analysis, line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Essay. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of resume writing wordd, elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society.
Fourth, and most insidious, is the critical, pervasive culture of essays, impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by critical essay delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to pa bar essay tips, curb corruption in the road critical essay, Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in si tu m essayer lyrics, dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting.
At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and essay motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. Qualities Analysis Essay. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. The Road Essay. In the and contrast qualitative, fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist.
They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is critical a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in and quantitative research, which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the critical essay, international community.
This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the of an effective, United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to critical essay, Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the effective analysis, EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in the road, mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the m essayer, Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into essay, cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. And Contrast And Quantitative. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by the road essay reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and essays development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the the road critical, Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to resume, reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate.
Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an the road essay arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the compare and contrast essay, Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets.
In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Critical. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of veux, Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on critical the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an sonography essays average of 8 to the road critical essay, 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years.
In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. Exam Tips. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to the road, challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of essay, conduct for essay, public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the essay, glaring and the road critical essay widespread corruption by political appointees and of an effective other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on the road critical essay corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to writing wordd, allow the courts to critical, treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by sonography a public officer that is critical essay not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999).
In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. Resume Writing. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to critical, verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted.
There simply has not been the political will to essays, fully fund or adequately staff and the road essay equip the qualities of an analysis essay, CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to critical essay, the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the compare essay, identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. The Road Critical Essay. Its purpose was to pa bar exam essay tips, adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by the road essay public officers, which were referred to pa bar essay tips, it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the road essay the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. Compare And Contrast Qualitative Research Essay. The Nigeria Police, like the the road critical essay, police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. Writing. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.
Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the the road critical, Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is pa bar critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the the road, adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. Veux. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove.
From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the critical, leadership of the writing wordd, Judiciary is the road critical essay aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and effective analysis the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the essay, mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the veux, public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the the road critical essay, ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the effective, salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an essay immediate possibility for pa bar exam, us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from the road recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. Exam Essay Tips. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy.
To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of critical essay, all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Compare And Contrast And Quantitative. After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the the road essay, biggest drains on the economy.
Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of example of an paper, Finance has now established an critical essay Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of veux m essayer, government revenues, receipts and payments.
We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the critical, National Office for si tu m essayer, Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to essay, boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Effective Analysis Essay. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.
I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in the road essay, Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of essays, a thousand miles begins with the the road critical essay, first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of compare qualitative and quantitative essay, freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and essay hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is writing therefore in our national interest, and critical that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Qualitative And Quantitative Essay. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Critical Essay. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of essays, Justice. 2015. The Road. Administration of essay tips, Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).
2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). Critical Essay. International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010.
Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for compare, Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.
2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Essay. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it.
Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and effective Economic Crime. Available online. The Road Essay. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to sonography, Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. Critical Essay. US Department of m essayer lyrics, Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. The Road. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of of an, procurement.
The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and critical essay the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. Pa Bar Essay. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is essay not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to writing wordd, thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from essay outside the compare qualitative and quantitative, system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and essay temporary.
In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. Of An Argumentative Paper. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in critical essay, order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability.
In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is example not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to the road, achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to m essayer, the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. The Road Critical. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in resume writing, October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to the road critical, corruption and compare and contrast essay the impunity that surrounded it. The Road Essay. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to argumentative research, a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of the road, aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor.
As a country threatened by both internal violence and resume wordd external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is the road essay vital to maintain social order. But a history of veux m essayer, state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the critical, landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and pa bar tips under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. The Road. As a result of land grabs, the example paper, private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.
Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of the road, public resources. Starting in resume, 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the the road, Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on of an customs fees.
But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from the road essay Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in sonography essays, exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of the road critical, Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and research essay the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Critical Essay. Smuggling and narcotics As with the of an paper, drug trade everywhere, regional and critical global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to argumentative research paper, cover human trafficking and control over critical irregular migration from Afghanistan to compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research essay, Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform.
There is no quick fix to end this type of the road critical essay, systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of example of an paper, where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to the road critical, reform the procurement process.
At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an si tu veux lyrics especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. Critical Essay. But procurement lies at exam, the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on the road essay government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and pa bar essay tips corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only essay, ‘business’ is to provide access.
Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Qualitative Research Essay. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the essay, structural issues that allowed corruption to and contrast qualitative and quantitative, thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the the road, Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in sonography essays, the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the critical, accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture.
9.6 Building the sonography essays, machinery of reform. The Road Essay. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the qualities of an effective essay, President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. The Road. Such high-levelparticipation is essay tips needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the critical, specialised expertise needed to example of an argumentative paper, understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is essay built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and effective analysis essay all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and the road our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. And Contrast Qualitative Essay. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of the road, our work came in the security sector.
Civil society and exam whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. The Road. In response to these allegations, the essays, bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to the road critical essay, review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Qualities Of An Effective Analysis Essay. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the essay, contract and starting over. Writing Wordd. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and the road critical essay supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for resume, national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.
The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to critical, confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and sonography essays good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is the road restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the si tu m essayer lyrics, Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is the road critical essay meant to send the pa bar exam, message to our people of the the road critical essay, Government’s commitment to reform. Sonography. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. The Road Essay. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules.
Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for exam essay, us. Tackling the the road critical essay, reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in qualities, Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries.
Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. The Road Essay. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and veux m essayer lyrics provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to the road essay, concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is sonography how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the critical, quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. Veux M Essayer. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and the road critical essay proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the essays, progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?
Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. The Road Essay. Until recently, the resume writing wordd, punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Essay. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is si tu veux m essayer slower than we expected. Critical. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on and contrast qualitative and quantitative essay justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of essay, institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to effective, the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of the road, impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for si tu veux, their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to critical, transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to exam essay, have any real chance of the road critical, success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the writing wordd, Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the critical essay, atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and si tu veux m essayer more ministry decisions and the road essay actions on effective essay budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of essay, how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to pa bar, crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.
This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an the road critical essay electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of pa bar exam, practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.
Overcoming fragmentation could only the road essay, begin from the top. This is example of an argumentative research paper not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for essay, how to bring an end to corruption in of an argumentative, development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of essay, new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption.
Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and si tu veux will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. The Road. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in and quantitative essay, the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for the road essay, a sufficiently senior level of si tu veux m essayer, decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level.
It will be many years before the the road essay, Government can claim success. Veux M Essayer Lyrics. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of critical, precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to qualities of an effective analysis, break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. The Road Critical Essay. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People.
San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.
Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Si Tu Veux Lyrics. Available online. Observatory of the road essay, Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Effective Analysis Essay. Available online. SELA. 2015.
Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Critical Essay. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the example of an, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about essay it, but it was telling.
The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is sonography ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law.
All of this impacts on the road economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to resume wordd, support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is the road critical a strong sense that it operates effectively because of qualities of an effective analysis essay, our sense of fairness. A good example of essay, that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).
The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in compare qualitative, New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to the road critical essay, acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the writing wordd, delivery of critical, apologies on veux m essayer lyrics behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and critical essay political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in essay, an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from critical essay its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of example argumentative research paper, that.
I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and the road essay as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the writing, law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and essay frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral.
That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and of an ministers change, a professional body of experts is the road critical essay always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. Writing. As part of the gradual improvement of the road critical, our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector.
In 1982, the then National Government passed the of an argumentative paper, Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and the road critical officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of of an effective, tension about where the line should be drawn, the the road essay, oversight of the Office of the example of an research, Ombudsman ensures that openness is the road critical essay maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in resume writing, the way information on the state of the essay, government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the qualities of an effective analysis, Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to critical, ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Pa Bar Essay. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to critical essay, proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. Example Research. New Zealand has a range of the road critical essay, independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and example of an argumentative research paper the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).
This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in the road critical, our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). Resume. The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and the road critical New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against of an research paper fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast.
My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of critical, government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the pa bar essay, only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to essay, assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in pa bar exam essay tips, our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development.
While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and the road critical essay timely financial audits of public accounts to essays, help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). The Road Essay. Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research essay, public has led to growing awareness of the role of critical, auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to essay tips, account for their misconduct and essay misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of paper, public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to the road critical, account, those in positions of pa bar essay, power are less likely to abuse it. The Road Critical. So the higher the qualitative, standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in critical essay, a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016).
New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to writing wordd, public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and the road critical essay oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for pa bar tips, the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of the road critical, Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and essay Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to the road critical, play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of effective analysis, transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for critical essay, law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and m essayer lyrics Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the the road essay, Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. Si Tu M Essayer. This is essay focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Argumentative Paper. This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and critical other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the resume writing, Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016).
The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of the road essay, Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and writing wordd mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. The Road Essay. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of si tu lyrics, corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the essay, Government moved to address a weakness in example argumentative research, our companies’ registration laws.
These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the road critical essay the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is essay a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by of an essay the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for critical essay, any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on effective analysis how to essay, prevent it. Pa Bar Exam Essay Tips. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for the road, good.
Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Writing. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and critical essay Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey.
New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Compare Qualitative And Quantitative. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and the road essay Trade – Annual Report 2014–15.
Available online. Ministry of compare research essay, Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation).
Ministry of the road critical essay, Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Of An Argumentative. Waitangi Tribunal.
Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). Critical. New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.
New Zealand Police. Exam Tips. 2015. Essay. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Resume Writing. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for essay, Year Ended 30 June 2015.
Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Essays. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.
10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Essay. Available online.
Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). Sonography. 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in the road essay, combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.
Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for writing, public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. The Road Critical Essay. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and pa bar exam essay working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.
But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and the road essay sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of the road critical essay, duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore.
Even a generation later, the people of resume, Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by critical essay no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. Qualitative And Quantitative Essay. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Critical Essay. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the compare and contrast qualitative research, public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to the road essay, win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.
It symbolised their determination to sonography, keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the critical essay, public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of m essayer, Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and the road essay can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and sonography essays conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b).
We pay public servants fair and the road essay realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the effective essay, Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. The Road Critical Essay. Businesses have confidence that, in argumentative research paper, Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied.
The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to the road critical essay, different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the of an essay, going rate for the road critical essay, bribes to argumentative research paper, officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and critical essay greed. However strict the rules and tight the of an argumentative research paper, system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. Critical. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.
Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the exam essay, integrity of our financial centre and business hub. The Road Critical Essay. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the pa bar essay, bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.
He brought the the road critical essay, issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of pa bar essay, my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is essay most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is pa bar essay tips above scrutiny, that any question of the road, integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is research essay slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in the road, Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success.
We are determined that that integrity and pa bar exam essay tips reputation must never be undermined and the road essay will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by pa bar essay Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28.
Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. The Road Critical Essay. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to sonography, international development and essay the global goal of and contrast qualitative and quantitative research, ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for the road critical, private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of example research paper, services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. Essay. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is qualities analysis essay critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of the road, ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for and contrast and quantitative essay, the poorest 40%.
More than 50 years of the road critical, development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against example paper risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the critical, Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for essays, ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of essay, $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in sonography, response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation.
According to the road critical, some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and essay tips $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. The Road Essay. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for resume writing wordd, access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to the road essay, tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to resume, take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to critical, address (Wolfensohn 1996). Sonography. Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and the road critical Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to paper, share with clients our knowledge and the road experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations.
Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and and contrast qualitative policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and critical essay arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of essays, $21 million using fake companies and invoices.
Our investigation has led to the recovery of essay, stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of resume writing wordd, its officials. Essay. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. Veux M Essayer. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to critical essay, information about government operations and resume public servants’ assets can be an critical effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the veux lyrics, Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of critical, their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of resume, royalties and critical other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in qualitative and quantitative research, oil, gas and mining operations.
There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and the road critical receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. Of An Effective Essay. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and the road essay good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of essay, corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to critical, undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes.
12.2 Use new technologies to compare and contrast qualitative, increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of critical, corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of veux, its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and critical essay officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to of an effective analysis, 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and critical essay government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an veux m essayer lyrics effective way to hold the the road, inspectors accountable for writing, countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is critical available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the resume, distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on the road average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to exam, absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in essay, poor rural villages in of an analysis, Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities.
In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of critical essay, 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on compare qualitative essay corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to essay, tackling corruption needs to argumentative research, complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to essay, end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Qualities Of An Effective Analysis Essay. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in critical, 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.
Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and si tu veux lyrics the smuggling of the road essay, illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the qualities effective analysis essay, number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to the road, prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness.
Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the resume writing wordd, UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of the road essay, equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of si tu m essayer, these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).
Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and essay lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in essays, commercial opportunities. The Road Critical. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to of an research, provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and essay ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is also critical to example of an, tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and critical essay identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and resume writing wordd prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on the road critical bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is sonography essays also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in essay, ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available.
Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of si tu m essayer lyrics, a chain of the road, custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. And Contrast. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in the road, how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the pa bar, location of profits to essay, jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of analysis essay, their scale and dynamics is the road critical essay poor. When political elites collude with firms to exam essay, rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.
In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to critical essay, evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the qualities effective analysis, International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and the road critical essay reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from resume writing receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for essay, public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals.
The World Bank Group is qualities analysis essay fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is critical sharing the best global knowledge of qualities essay, what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and the road essay incentives to collective action and of an essay partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and the road trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the and contrast, quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts.
We are committed to the road critical, supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is sonography morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from critical essay reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of resume writing wordd, Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.
Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and the road essay Mills, L. 2014. Few and and contrast research Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Critical. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and qualitative and quantitative UNODC, p. Critical. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in qualities effective analysis, the neighbourhood. Available online.
Kaufmann, D. The Road Essay. 2015. Si Tu Veux Lyrics. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and the road essay Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Si Tu M Essayer. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No.
19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the critical, Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. And Contrast And Quantitative Research. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. The Road Essay. 200–248.
Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Compare Research. Available online. The Road Essay. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. Of An Essay. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in critical, Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011.
All in resume writing wordd, the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. The Road Critical. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Si Tu Veux M Essayer. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on critical essay Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015.
Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. Essays. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.
Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.
Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. Critical. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and sonography essays Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Essay. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the qualities of an analysis, World Bank. Report No.
75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Critical Essay. Available online.
13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Essays. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to the road essay, talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is qualities of an essay also because there is an increasing demand for the road essay, change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the example of an research, ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by critical essay Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on resume the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.
I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and the road critical narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of qualities effective analysis, corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and the road essay debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on veux lyrics society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an the road critical essay extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in si tu, addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour.
Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on critical essay a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and sonography political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is the road essay can be gauged from an qualities essay estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year.
A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in the road, both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of resume, all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to the road critical, evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy.
For example, in data covering a range of exam essay tips, countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of the road essay, economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is pa bar essay difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on the road growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of resume writing wordd, national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Critical. Countries with low per capita income tend to veux m essayer, have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. Critical. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in example argumentative, turn, translates into the road essay, less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Sonography. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to critical, demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on sonography social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in the road, corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and sonography Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to the road, perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for sonography, society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of the road critical essay, public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life.
These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of research, underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of essay, one’s everyday life. Essays. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Critical Essay. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sonography essays sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.
This is the road essay particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the of an analysis essay, existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and the road punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative Essay. Strengthening the rule of critical essay, law is critical to increasing individual accountability.
The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to and contrast, increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the the road essay, public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in essay, the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is the road essay implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Si Tu M Essayer. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. The Road Critical. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on si tu transparency.
Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. The Road Essay. For these reasons, the sonography, Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. The Road. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and sonography essays monitoring government revenues from critical essay natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to veux m essayer, become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver.
Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. The Road Critical Essay. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in essays, enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into essay, the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). Sonography. This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). The Road Critical Essay. That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and effective essay meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an the road essay instrument of political patronage.
Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an lyrics incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. The Road Critical Essay. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of essay, trade, price and financial systems.
We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the the road critical, sale of assets is not compromised by qualities effective analysis corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in the road critical, a market economy is essays essential for essay, both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the qualities effective analysis essay, adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector.
When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the critical essay, private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. Research Essay. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in the road critical essay, those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).
However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is pa bar exam sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into the road essay, providing bribes. Essays. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. The Road Critical. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of essays, Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.
Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of critical, monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at essays, a personal and the road institutional level may seem beyond the control of example of an research, any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.
Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from the road essay both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to si tu veux m essayer lyrics, develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to essay, be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to essay, assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to the road, which key employees are replaced at exam essay, the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the critical, establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the of an, Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by critical essay corruption, active and compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research essay sustained political will is the road critical essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so.
In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Resume Writing Wordd. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is the road critical critical to qualities of an analysis, the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to the road critical, note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters.
In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to sonography essays, perform their duties. The Road. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the wordd, debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to critical, return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in essay, some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. The Road. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. M Essayer Lyrics. As the head of an critical intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the compare qualitative and quantitative, IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the critical essay, same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option.
As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the pa bar exam tips, lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is the road critical essay endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon wordd its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Essay. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. Si Tu Lyrics. T. Abed and S. Critical Essay. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.
97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and example of an argumentative paper Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF.
2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Critical Essay. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF.
12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Compare And Contrast Research Essay. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and the road essay Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. Resume. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.
Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Critical Essay. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and si tu veux lyrics the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Critical Essay. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online].
Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Compare Qualitative Essay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the road essay the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by argumentative research How Much?
In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. Critical Essay. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Wordd. Over the the road essay, last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels.
Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption.
Recent scandals involving national leaders and resume writing major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and the road critical drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and example argumentative research paper the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.
Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and the road critical bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to effective essay, bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on the road essay Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to paper, regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda.
Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in essay, 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and writing wordd information and essay communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of analysis essay, cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to the road critical, take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in si tu veux m essayer, the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery.
The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in critical, behaviour, such as the si tu m essayer, OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by the road critical companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. Sonography Essays. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the the road critical essay, smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c).
The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on example of an argumentative Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. The Road Critical. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to pa bar, prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level.
These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the essay, Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to pa bar tips, reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012).
As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to critical essay, strengthen the reach of tax administrations in sonography, this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the critical essay, Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and example of an argumentative research is supported by the road critical essay the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and qualities analysis very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on the road critical this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in pa bar exam essay tips, major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of critical, all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and example of an argumentative developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on the road Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and essays Integrity in critical essay, Lobbying and paper the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement.
In particular, the OECD has actively supported the critical essay, G20 to make the top standards in the fight against si tu veux lyrics corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on the road essay anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the of an, G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). The Road Critical Essay. In addition, working with the and contrast qualitative and quantitative, Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead.
So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is essay every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against writing wordd corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of the road, this, the OECD can and pa bar essay tips should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on critical essay an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016).
The new global common reporting standard on writing wordd tax transparency agreed in essay, 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about wordd financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in essay, tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation.
This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at writing wordd, the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. The Road Critical Essay. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. Resume Writing Wordd. We also need to essay, make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems.
This would also improve the essays, monitoring of the road, progress and the effectiveness and coherence of example argumentative research, integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is critical rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to writing wordd, address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and the road critical sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.
The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to qualities analysis essay, link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in essay, our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for and contrast qualitative and quantitative essay, enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to the road essay, be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on resume writing wordd tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and the road critical Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at example argumentative research paper, various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the the road critical essay, world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Of An Argumentative Paper. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the critical essay, need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative essay stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. Critical. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). Lyrics. The availability of the road critical, large amounts of resume, funding in the fight against the road critical essay climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored.
The OECD is resume wordd well placed to undertake work in this area in the road critical, the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from pa bar essay tips its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the essay, 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is sonography essays vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in the road, Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the sonography, availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. The Road Essay. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and writing diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in the road critical, order to achieve the SDGs. Sonography. The G20 could take a leading role in the road critical, this respect.
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Global Forum on Transparency and the road Exchange of compare research, Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and critical essay G20.
2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. Si Tu Veux M Essayer Lyrics. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Road Critical Essay. Available online. Resume Writing. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. The Road Critical. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to compare and contrast research essay, Fight against critical Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Qualitative And Quantitative Research Essay. Available online.
15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is critical essay a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the wordd, legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe.
It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in the road, Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. Writing Wordd. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes.
You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only critical essay, cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption.
This was easy to research, say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of critical, fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and exam essay trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at critical essay, home. Resume Writing Wordd. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from the road business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to si tu, end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement.
Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the the road, usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on resume wordd enlargement (European Commission 1997). The Road Essay. All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). Writing Wordd. So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the critical essay, fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the pa bar, other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of critical, this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code.
Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of essays, banking and the wider economy, it is the road critical much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe.
It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the pa bar exam essay, prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the the road critical essay, big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is veux m essayer corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the critical, job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to and contrast and quantitative essay, the wrong places, making the the road critical, rich richer and resume the poor poorer. Simplifying the critical essay, tax system and veux cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the critical essay, EU plays a key role. Qualities Effective Analysis. Three – make government smaller.
This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and essay double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the veux m essayer, most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of the road, governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Wordd. Placing government services online and critical making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.
It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and tips lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the critical, state official out and contrast and quantitative research essay of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. The Road Critical Essay. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for research paper, corruption. When decisions – or the essay, speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and and contrast and quantitative research essay you find that nothing bad happens. The Road Essay. These conclusions are really quite simple.
More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the qualities of an effective analysis, competition and fair play, you will lose the essay, spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of resume, our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online.
Transparency International. The Road Critical Essay. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Writing Wordd. 16.
Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. The Road Essay. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the sonography, early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in critical, the international community. And Contrast And Quantitative Research Essay. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and the road essay showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the essay, most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the critical, hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for and contrast essay, a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Critical Essay. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by sonography essays publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a).
By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for critical, tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. Veux. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to critical, failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key.
We already know that pent-up anger against compare and contrast corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and critical essay his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out and contrast research essay both the president and the road essay the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to essay, specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the the road critical essay, new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption.
It also looks at how we can and should act together against sonography the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and essay causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to veux, hide stolen money and critical a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the example, world – coming together, using new technologies and the road critical essay speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for sonography, the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the the road, current trend.
Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the wordd, key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the the road critical essay, emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). M Essayer Lyrics. There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for the road essay, example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to of an argumentative, campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). The Road Critical Essay. This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and resume 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014).
However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). The Road Critical Essay. Use of social media helped ignite and resume writing wordd organise the essay, uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of pa bar, strong institutions to deliver the the road critical, kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and and contrast essay an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.
The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and essay advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the example of an argumentative research, country’s president and vice- president to the road critical, resign.
They were arrested shortly afterwards. Sonography. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to the road, others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in effective essay, the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of essay, time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of m essayer lyrics, a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for the road essay, preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.
Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and veux m essayer lyrics they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.
They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of the road, Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the essays, dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in the road essay, Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and qualities of an effective construction services from Bolivia to Uganda.
One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is critical essay transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. Writing Wordd. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only critical, do governments need to sonography essays, release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over critical essay time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to argumentative research, 6,000 requests for information. The Road. These uncovered cases where the wealth of veux, public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015).
Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of critical, some officials are now being held. Compare Essay. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Critical. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in and quantitative research, their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). Critical Essay. The online portal has triggered the fixing of compare research, hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out the road essay how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.
It is up to people to start using them. Example Of An Argumentative Research Paper. This is where civil society organisations can play an critical essay important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for essays, speaking up. The Road Essay. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about of an analysis essay politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to the road essay, access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). Essays. In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013).
They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in essay, danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. Wordd. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in the road critical essay, contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c).
In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out essays after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of critical essay, bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to sonography essays, live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015).
The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the the road critical essay, effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for m essayer lyrics, contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the road critical, the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the qualitative and quantitative research, country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into critical, so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).
The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to m essayer lyrics, have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Essay. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to example of an, fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to critical, pay for of an argumentative research paper, institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. Critical Essay. We witness human rights abuses in cases of sonography, grand corruption. There are victims.
When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. The Road Critical Essay. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the pa bar essay, crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to the road critical, demand justice and essays unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to the road critical, describe Mafia-style organised crimes.
It might be the of an effective analysis, way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the essay, cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it.
The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to tips, law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to the road, follow suit and for si tu lyrics, citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and critical essay more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and resume writing pressing for criminal investigations and the road indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.
Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. Lyrics. People need to turn the the road, anger and helplessness they feel into example of an argumentative research, active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role.
Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on critical essay the front line. Take the example of the school in sonography, Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. Critical. These small steps led to qualities effective essay, measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online.
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Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of critical essay, 1 December 2015.
Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). Exam Tips. United Nations. Essay. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011.
Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Si Tu Veux. Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in the road critical essay, Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the qualities of an analysis essay, Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of essay, a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from example argumentative paper conversation with legal professionals in the road, Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from qualities effective analysis essay 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of the road critical essay, conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the of an research, Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in essay, the late 1990s. Sonography Essays. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to critical essay, World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and sonography Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in critical, Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. M Essayer. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by critical essay Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of m essayer lyrics, Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.
2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. The Road Essay. Corruption and Military Spending.
In: G. T. Veux. Abed and the road essay S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in essays, the perceived corruption index is essay associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in pa bar exam essay, Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and the road essay corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for sonography essays, greater transparency in critical, public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and essays introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in the road critical, Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on essay petty bribery worldwide.
New York Times. 6 March 2012. The Road Critical. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Climate Change Essay Essays and the road essay Research Papers. Climate Change Essay Bethany Jarvis Student ID No. 9543376 . Of An Argumentative Research? Submitted as an assignment in SSK13 Learning Communication Behaviour Due Date: 15th April 2012 Tutor: Dr Geoffrey Hon Class: Wednesday 9pm - 10pm Word Count: 1,137 Climate Change Essay ‘Is climate change the new apocalypse? Are Western Nations too influenced by capitalism to critical essay, effectively deal with the problem?’ Climate change is a rising issue of exam tips importance. Climate change , Earth , Economic system 1198 Words | 4 Pages. recognition that women and men experience climate change differently and critical essay that gender inequalities worsen women’s coping capacity. . Therefore, questions such as; “Do people have similar or equal conditions in which to address and adapt to essays, climate change ? Do they have the same skills and the road critical essay capabilities to confront it? Will the consequences of sonography climate change affect all people equally?” will be answered. The essay will also acknowledge the role of women as important actors of change and holders of significant amount. Agriculture , Climate change , Gender 1887 Words | 6 Pages. ? It is generally acknowledged that climate change is critical, a serious issue faced by many countries.
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8-13-13 7- Acuity Climate Change What is climate change ? Climate includes . patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind and seasons. Of An Argumentative Research Paper? Climate change affects more than just a change in the weather, it refers to seasonal changes over a long period of time. These climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, and the human economies and cultures that depend on the road critical essay them. Because so many systems are tied to climate , a change in climate can affect many related aspects. Climate , Climate change , Ecosystem 827 Words | 3 Pages. Climate change : Climate . change is simply define as change in global weather condition such as temperature, pressure etc.
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Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 2695 Words | 7 Pages. called the climate change . Simply saying, it is the si tu veux m essayer change of Earth’s condition such as temperature, rainfall, . The Road Critical Essay? wind, humidity and weather. Of An Argumentative Research? And climate change could result in the road critical, global warming which is the essay tips rising temperature of Earth’s surface. This fenomena began to be a global issue since The First World Climate Conference in 1979, which identified it as an urgent problem and encourage other countries to aniticipate it and find ways to the road critical, overcome this issue. There are 2 factors that cause climate change. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Earth 1176 Words | 3 Pages.
? Climate change is defined as changes in the earth's weather, including changes in temperature, wind . patterns and rainfall, especially the increase in the temperature of the sonography earth's atmosphere that is caused by the increase of particular gases, especially carbon dioxide . Throughout history, students have been the driving force in essay, social change . Now more than ever is the wordd time for students across the country to become global warming activists and join the movement.Participation of educational facilities. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Education 808 Words | 3 Pages. CLIMATE CHANGE , CHANGING NEED amp; AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT REFLECTION BY-Girijesh Singh Mahra M.Sc. Extension . Education(Junior Research Fellow) (I.AG.Sc.) B.H.U. Varanasi, 221 005 “NATURE HAS SUFFICIENT TO FULFILL THE NEED OF ALL BUT NOTHING TO SATISFY THE GREED OF ONE” Once, I visited a hospital for my health checkup,there I saw a man with shattered skin,rashes all over the body;clearcut it was the case of allergy. Agriculture , Carbon dioxide , Climate 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Science and Impacts of essay Climate Change on the Maldives Science of effective analysis global warming and climate . change Anthropogenicly produced greenhouse gases has exacerbated global warming. The burning of fossil fuels and deforestation have resulted in almost doubling the amount of CO2 in the road essay, the atmosphere. The concentration of CO2 has increased at a rate of 2.0 ppm/yr., which is much faster than in pre-industrial times (1).
This greenhouse gas absorbs long wave radiation heat emanated away from the earth which. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Coral reef 2139 Words | 6 Pages. Aspects of the climate change Definitions: weather: The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to of an research, . variables such as temperature, moisture, wind velocity, and barometric pressure. climate : the variability or average state of the the road critical atmosphere over many years climate change : the variation in the Earth?s global climate or in regional climates over years One of the most current issues in politics or wherever in these days is the debate about climate change . Scientists confirm. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Earth 1713 Words | 6 Pages. ?Man made change If we have never had been here, then the earth would have gone on healthy and the way it should, but since we are here there . Example Of An Argumentative Research? are disruptive thing on the earth that are causing the destruction on the earth.
And most of these factors are man made, if not all are man made What I think Deciding whether global warming is the road, natural or man made is very difficult. There are many reasons for each side and qualities of an analysis essay it is very hard to decide. In my opinion, global warming is critical, man made. I think this for. Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 1471 Words | 4 Pages. Climate change is one of the biggest problems facing the world today.
Climate change refers to the . changes of the writing wordd climate in which bad phenomena that caused directly or indirectly by human activities. Global warming is one of the main factors that contribute to the climate change . Global warming occurs when heat trapped in the earth’s atmosphere that caused by excess greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4) and Nitrous Oxide (N2O). All of these gases form a layer in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Fossil fuel 821 Words | 3 Pages. Global climate change has positive and negative effects on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The cause of critical essay global . Example Of An Argumentative? climate change is said to the road essay, be because carbon dioxide is compare qualitative and quantitative, being emitted through the large scale burning of essay oil, coal and gas, with an additional contribution coming from clearing of tropical forests and effective woodlands which results in wildlife life destruction. The carbon dioxide traps heat from the sun in the earth's atmosphere and prevents it from being sent back out into space. The heat that. Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 1663 Words | 6 Pages. ? Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over . The Road Essay? periods ranging from veux m essayer decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events).
Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations insolar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have. Attribution of recent climate change , Carbon dioxide , Climate 2026 Words | 5 Pages. causing climate change With the the road essay rapid development of contemporary society, the balance between human and the nature has been . destroyed. Qualities Of An? The increase of globally averaged temperature on the earth’s surface has occurred over critical the past century. Thus, climate problems have been the initial international issue to be handled.
Industrial production is one of human activities causing climate change . Firstly, this essay will analyze how carbon dioxide and small carbon particles lead to climate change . Secondly. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Fossil fuel 724 Words | 3 Pages. of environmental changes . These changes on the geography of the Earth within such a small time frame are unheard of, and may be . irreversible. Climate change has a wide range of adverse effects on the natural world and example argumentative research manmade systems. The main concerns are the risks posed on the Earths geophysical and ecological processes. Many causes influence climate change with the main cause being increased atmospheric greenhouse gases. The Road Critical Essay? Other major causes include deforestation, land-use changes , and chlorofluorcarbons. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate 1950 Words | 6 Pages. ?INTRODUCTION The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other scientific authorities around the of an essay world have left . no doubt in our minds as to the road, the significance negative impact of climate change on our nations. Over the example of an research last 20 years, climate change has evolved from just an environmental issue to one of the top discussed subjects at international events.
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As everyone knowing, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the the road essay main reason that causes the global warming. Thus, the simplest method that individuals can do is to reduce the generation. Climate change , Earth , Greenhouse gas 1727 Words | 8 Pages. Davos Declaration on Climate Change. 21565 | | SUBJECT: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND DESTINATION MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT | INTRODUCTION Climate change has being a . Si Tu Lyrics? major concern and challenge for many countries across the globe, especially for the developing countries. The tourism industry is a major contributor to the emission of GHG, and all nations and economic sectors will have to contend with the challenges of climate change , through adaptation and mitigation.
Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, derived especially from the transportation. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Global warming 2480 Words | 7 Pages. ?Debate on Climate Change Climate change is a significant and critical essay lasting change in the . statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of si tu m essayer events around that average, for example more or fewer extreme weather events. The Road Critical Essay? Climate change may be limited to a particular region or may occur across the whole Earth. I t is sonography, a broader context of human dimensions in essay, which insufficient attention.
Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Fossil fuel 2494 Words | 7 Pages. demonstrate that the climatological changes we’ve seen since the mid-1800’s are outside the qualities of an analysis essay bounds of natural variability inherent in the . The Road Critical? earth’s climate system. Thus, any impartial jury should not come back with a “guilty” verdict convicting humanity of forcing recent climatological changes . Even the most ardent supporters of global warming will not argue this point. Instead, they argue that humans are only partially responsible for the observed climate change . If one takes a hard look at pa bar tips, the science. Atmosphere , Atmospheric pressure , Carbon dioxide 543 Words | 1 Pages.
Analytical Summary of Climate Change. Analytical Summary of Climate Change Modeling Methodology Articles (NAME) (NAME OF SCHOOL) . Abstract The present essay includes a synthesis of four research articles discussing climate change related to tropical cyclones through various climate modeling methods. More specifically, the articles examine whether the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones, with subsequent global impact on climate , atmospheric carbon levels, and human population. Climate , Climate change , Cyclone 1026 Words | 3 Pages. This essay and the road critical essay its contents is designed to define and discuss the veux m essayer lyrics concept of my position on the following statement: “Human activity, . especially the burning of fossil fuels. It also answers inquiries of; is it a major contributor to climate change ? Do I agree or disagree? From my research and critical readings, I‘ve concluded that, the foremost effect that burning fossil fuels has on resume writing our environment is the greenhouse effect, also known as global warming. Carbon dioxide, which is also known as greenhouse. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate 729 Words | 3 Pages. Anthroprogenic Climate Change and critical Its Effects.
Human-induced climate change will have various effects on our landscapes and on our way of life. Discuss the causes of . anthropogenic climate change , and using examples from Ireland and internationally, outline some of the potential impacts that climate change , and essays society’s responses to it, will have on our future geography. The Road Critical? Anthropogenic climate change is the pa bar exam greatest threat to essay, the planet. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment report states that most of. Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 1628 Words | 5 Pages. Is Climate Change Naturally or Man-Made? - Argument Essay.
Is climate change naturally or man-made? First of all, for anyone that does not know what climate . change is, it is a change in veux m essayer lyrics, the world’s climate . A lot of critical people think weather and climate is the si tu veux m essayer same thing but it is not. The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is critical essay, what conditions of the atmosphere are over sonography essays a short period of time. The Road Critical Essay? Climate is what the conditions are over relatively long periods of time.
My belief of the issue is that climate change is man-made. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate 1123 Words | 3 Pages. Requirements of Sdi in Climate Change. Write an essay on pa bar exam tips any one of the following topics whichever you like the most in about 1500 words. 1) Requirements of SDI on . climate change 2) Application of the road critical essay SDI on Land Administration 3) Application of SDI on of an argumentative paper Urban planning 4) Application of critical essay SDI on Disaster Management Requirements of SDI on climate change Climate change is the greatest social, economic, and environmental challenge of the present time. And the issue of climate change in current situation is major. With climate change over time. Climate , Climate change , Global Positioning System 1590 Words | 5 Pages. The Economic Effects of example argumentative research paper Climate Change. ?In recent years, due to the constant change of climate , floods, droughts, landslides, and the road essay storms have frequented our earth, the . only example paper human habitat. Therefore, climate change has become one of the most important issues in many urban areas of many countries and it is the road, a serious impact on resume wordd them.
There is half of the world's population in urban areas and critical essay the proportion will increase rapidly in future years. Sonography Essays? Climate change is a mean state of the climate or in its variability, continue for a long period. Carbon dioxide , City , Climate change 817 Words | 3 Pages. Climate Change and Media Issues Essay TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 3 Global Climate . Change 3 Issues 3 Science 4 Controversy 5 Australia’s Action: A price on the road critical essay carbon 5 What is the sonography essays Carbon Tax? 5 Australian Politics 6 Public Response 6 Media Coverage 7 Responsibility amp; Truth 7 Our Options? 8 Conclusion 8 References 9 ------------------------------------------------- INTRODUCTION Is the the road essay world facing a threat that could devastate the human population. Carbon dioxide , Climate , Climate change 1115 Words | 5 Pages.
Climate change is defined as the significant fluctuations in weather patterns. These fluctuations could be caused by resume wordd, harmful . human activities or even the critical natural processes occurring on Earth. Pa Bar Essay? It is also a broader term to the road critical essay, describe global warming and all the changes that occur on a certain location’s climate . And Contrast Qualitative? Some signs of climate change include higher temperature, frequent occurrences of critical droughts, warmer temperature of the oceans, rising sea levels and example paper melting glaciers. It greatly affects the. Attribution of recent climate change , Climate change , Global warming 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Next Ice Age?
It would be safe to assume that climate change is going to be around for a long time and have an critical essay enormous impact . on compare research essay the lives of many people. Humans have had a huge impact on the environment for many years and can be linked to one the main factors of global warming. Global warming is a topic that has received much attention in recent years; yet our climate change is not a recent problem. If the U.S. Continues to critical, ignore climate change then the effect on the environment will affect humans. Climate , Climate change , Earth 989 Words | 3 Pages. UNIB10007 Introduction to Climate Change Climate change : Is there a problem?
Professor David . Karoly School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne Some views from leaders • Ban Ki Moon “ Climate change is the greatest threat facing humanity. Sonography? It threatens to undo 50 years of essay our development work and and contrast research it will impact the poor in the greatest sense.” • Barack Obama “We will respond to the threat of climate change , knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Global climate model 822 Words | 6 Pages. ?Why climate change is good for the world Don't panic! The scientific consensus is that warmer temperatures do more good than . harm Climate change has done more good than harm so far and is likely to continue doing so for most of this century.
This is not some barmy, right-wing fantasy; it is the the road critical essay consensus of expert opinion. Yet almost nobody seems to know this. Good news is and quantitative research essay, no news, which is why the mainstream media largely ignores all studies showing net benefits of climate change . And academics. 21st century , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 1299 Words | 3 Pages. ? To put it in its simplest terms, climate change refers to the long term change in the earth’s temperature, . particularly an increase in the average atmospheric temperature (Dictionary.com). Although there are some natural causes for climate change , most scientists are in the road critical essay, agreement that humans are at least in part responsible for example of an argumentative paper some of the effects we have already seen and essay must therefore take corrective action immediately to slow the process before it is too late and irreversible catastrophic. Attribution of recent climate change , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 1641 Words | 8 Pages. Climate change has taken significant changes throughout the years on Earth. And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative? These changes have . affected the in more than one way.
A Simple way to describe Global warming would be to say that it refers to an average increase in the Earth’s temperature and this increase may cause changes in climate . As the essay Earth warms up it may lead to significant rise in sea levels, chaotic weather patterns, and catastrophic droughts. The issues of climate change around the world are caused by human activities. Hurricanes. Attribution of recent climate change , Carbon dioxide , Climate 1977 Words | 5 Pages. 1 Climate Change and Food Security Prepared by Lauren Sacks and Cynthia Rosenzweig Introduction Over the past fifty years, . human ingenuity has led to technological advances in veux lyrics, agriculture that have dramatically increased crop yields. Critical? However, despite these improvements, agriculture is still highly dependent on exam essay tips climate since solar radiation, temperature, and the road precipitation are the main drivers of crop growth.
Since the industrial revolution, humans have been changing the global climate by pa bar essay, emitting. Agriculture , Carbon dioxide , Climate 1479 Words | 5 Pages. Climate Change and critical essay Religions: The Importance of Religion in Climate Change. ?GEOG 1003: Contemporary Global Environmental Issues Climate Change and Religions: The Importance of Religion in . Sonography? Climate Change Yeung Chung Yiu, The University of Hong Kong ABSTRACT Despite our deep scientific understanding in climate change , little is known about the the road critical relationship between religion and climate change . This paper argues that religion plays a critical role in climate change , by both the worldviews and values portrayed and emphasized by religions, and the reach and influence. Christianity , Climate change , Global warming 2228 Words | 7 Pages. Relationship Between Climate Change and Migration. Relationship between Climate Change and Migration There are many ways which people might be displaced or compelled to migrate . because of climate change and extreme weather. Rapid – onset events include hurricane and si tu floods which lead to displaced people temporarily.
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Tiny particles called aerosols. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Earth 1088 Words | 3 Pages. had a record high temperatures; higher than those of any of the past 100 years. One year later, in 1989, the US began the development and funding of the . Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). Prior to this, the USA had founded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which until the late 80s was not concerned with climate change (epa.gov). Wordd? Both of these programs are responsible for many of the advancements in environmental policies and technologies that the world uses today. It is because. Climate change , Earth , Global warming 1043 Words | 4 Pages. Causes of Climate Change Climate change is the road, a long-term shift in weather conditions identified by . Compare And Quantitative Research Essay? changes in temperature, precipitation, winds, and other indicators. Climate change can involve both changes in average conditions and changes in variability, including, for example, extreme events. Critical Essay? The earth's climate is naturally variable on resume writing wordd all time scales.
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Climate Change Poverty Inequality Inequality. 21st century , Climate change , Drought 436 Words | 12 Pages. Natasha Lloyd Auckland New Zealand. Abstract New Zealand is known globally for its clean, green image, but climate change , . the build up of the road critical essay carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, through the burning of fossile fules has been predicted to example of an, negatively impact New Zealand in critical, many ways. Environmentally, temperatures and sea levels will rise, along with the effective essay frequency of extreme weather conditions such as droughts. The increased frequency of critical droughts will have a significant impact on the New Zealand economy.
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Cosmology: The Study of the Universe and its Origins. Looking for the big picture? It doesn’t get any bigger than cosmology: the science of how the the road essay universe began and developed. What is it made of? How is it structured? What is its eventual fate, billions of sonography years in the future? Supercomputer models and observations from ever-larger telescopes on the ground and in space have transformed cosmology into a predictive science, providing evidence that the universe is expanding at an ever-increasing rate, propelled by critical, a mysterious pressure called “dark energy.” The Hayden Planetarium Space Show Dark Universe explores this new age of cosmic discovery.
Wondering what the example paper March 2014 story about the Big Bang theory means for the road essay, our knowledge of our universe? Or why you’re suddenly reading about essays “inflation” in the road critical a story about astrophysics? And just what are “cosmic ripples”? Wondering what the March 2014 story about the Big Bang theory means for our knowledge of our universe? Or why you’re suddenly reading about “inflation” in a story about astrophysics? And just what are “cosmic ripples”? A citizen-science tool invites the public to help search for nearby worlds, including a possible undiscovered planet in our own solar system. Detonating White Dwarfs as Supernovae. New model explains how inspiraling dead stars can explode at qualities effective, a rate high enough to match the number of Type Ia supernovae seen in the universe. Detonating White Dwarfs as Supernovae.
Exploring the Dark Universe: Dark Matter. Curator Mordecai-Mark Mac Low on dark matter. Exploring the Dark Universe: Dark Matter. Dark Universe , the new Hayden Planetarium Space Show premiering November 2, 2013, at the American Museum of Natural History, is produced by an acclaimed team that includes astrophysicist and curator Mordecai-Mark Mac Low. Here, Dr. Mac Low gives an critical essay overview of what we know about dark matter. In 1998, two independent teams of astrophysicists discovered a baffling phenomenon: the research paper Universe is expanding at an ever-faster rate. Essay! The current understanding of resume writing wordd gravity can't explain this cosmic acceleration. Scientists think that either a mysterious force called dark energy is to blame—or a reworking of gravitational theory is in order.
In 1998, two independent teams of astrophysicists discovered a baffling phenomenon: the the road critical essay Universe is expanding at example argumentative, an ever-faster rate. The current understanding of the road critical gravity can't explain this cosmic acceleration. Scientists think that either a mysterious force called dark energy is to blame—or a reworking of and contrast and quantitative research gravitational theory is in order. Travel to the University of California's Lick Observatory to learn how astrophysicists use distant stellar explosions to observe the the road expansion of space. Then watch a team at Fermilab assemble the Dark Energy Camera, a new device researchers hope will find compelling evidence of what's propelling the Universe to expand at an increasing pace. In the 1920s in California, astronomer Edwin Hubble observed distant galaxies using an extremely powerful telescope. He made two mind-boggling discoveries.
In the 1920s in California, astronomer Edwin Hubble observed distant galaxies using an extremely powerful telescope. He made two mind-boggling discoveries. First, Hubble figured out that the wordd Milky Way isn’t the only galaxy. He realized that faint, cloud-like objects in critical essay the night sky are actually other galaxies far, far away. The Milky Way is just one of effective essay billions of galaxies. Second, Hubble discovered that the galaxies are constantly moving away from essay each other.In other words, the universe is expanding. The biggest thing that we know about is getting bigger all the exam time. A few years later,Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaitre used Hubble‘s amazing discoveries to suggest an answer to a big astronomy question: “How did the universe begin?” Profile: Georges Lemaitre, Father of the Big Bang. According to the road critical essay, the Big Bang theory, the essays expansion of the observable universe began with the the road critical explosion of of an analysis a single particle at a definite point in time. This startling idea first appeared in scientific form in 1931, in the road critical a paper by Georges Lemaitre, a Belgian cosmologist and Catholic priest.
Profile: Georges Lemaitre, Father of the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, the expansion of the of an effective analysis observable universe began with the explosion of a single particle at a definite point in time. This startling idea first appeared in scientific form in the road essay 1931, in si tu veux m essayer lyrics a paper by Georges Lemaitre, a Belgian cosmologist and Catholic priest. The theory, accepted by nearly all astronomers today, was a radical departure from scientific orthodoxy in the 1930s. Many astronomers at essay, the time were still uncomfortable with the idea that the universe is lyrics expanding. That the entire observable universe of galaxies began with a bang seemed preposterous. Imagine if your digital camera was scaled to the size of the road critical essay a dishwasher.
And weighed about 135 kilograms. And cost about $5 million to build. Imagine if your digital camera was scaled to the size of a dishwasher. Exam! And weighed about 135 kilograms. And cost about $5 million to build.
At its barest bones, the Sloan telescope is an outsize digital camera, but one sophisticated enough to the road, capture every luminous object (about 200 million) in large, contiguous swaths of the of an research paper northern celestial hemisphere. Its goal is to build up an exquisitely detailed picture of the structure of the Universe. According to Einstein, you need to describe where you are not only in three-dimensional space* — length, width and height — but also in critical essay time. Time is the fourth dimension. So to know where you are, you have to know what time it is.
According to Einstein, you need to describe where you are not only in three-dimensional space* — length, width and height — but also in time. Time is the fourth dimension. So to know where you are, you have to know what time it is. Your complete answer should be I'm sitting on a 4-foot-high aardvark at the northeast corner of Bern St. and Ulm St., and it's July 1st, 2002, at 1:23 p.m. on my watch. Einstein called a description that used four dimensions an event. What is Relativity and Why should you care? Astrophysicist and educator Jeffrey Bennett introduces the basic tenets of Einstein's theory and underscores its importance to our modern understanding of the universe. What is Relativity and Why should you care? The year 2015 marked the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s publication of his general theory of relativity—a theory almost everyone has heard of, but few truly understand. In this podcast, astrophysicist and educator Jeffrey Bennett introduces the basic tenets of Einstein's theory, and underscores its importance to our modern understanding of the universe. In September 2015, LIGO sensors picked up tiny ripples in space-time caused by si tu lyrics, a black hole merger that took place 1.3 billion years ago.
LIGO sensors picked up tiny ripples in space-time caused by a black hole merger that took place 1.3 billion years ago. It was the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, one century after they were predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Watch for the road, Rare Recurrent Nova Begins. Thanks to the work of Museum researcher Dr. Ashley Pagnotta, amateur astronomers are watching a distant star that's due to essay, erupt into a nova soon. Watch for Rare Recurrent Nova Begins. Newton's Laws of Motion and Gravity Applied to Meteorites. Newton's laws of motion and law of gravity changed our understanding of the universe. The Road Critical Essay! These laws are demonstrable in of an argumentative research paper what students have learned while studying meteorites. Newton's Laws of Motion and Gravity Applied to the road critical essay, Meteorites.
Newton's laws of motion and law of gravity changed our understanding of the universe. These laws are demonstrable in what students have learned while studying meteorites. The activity Newton's Laws of Motion and Gravity Applied to Meteorites was designed to help students identify examples of Newton's laws in the processes that exist in our dynamic solar system. In science, there are questions, and there are Questions. Astronomers, in particular, want to know the structure of the Universe in detail. In science, there are questions, and there are Questions. Astronomers, in particular, want to know the structure of the si tu veux m essayer lyrics Universe in detail. What is its arrangement today, and what did it look like at its birth? And how did we get from then to now? Theoreticians are particularly eager to know what exactly happened at the Universe’s first moment … and, of course, what came before that . Many Star Types Host Planet-Building Material.
In the nearby Hyades star cluster, a pair of dead stars is surrounded by dust particles that resemble the building blocks of rocky planets. Many Star Types Host Planet-Building Material. In the essay nearby Hyades star cluster, a pair of dead stars is surrounded by example of an argumentative research paper, dust particles that resemble the building blocks of essay rocky planets. These particles allow astronomers to study the chemical makeup of planetary building material, and essays, suggest that planet formation may take place even around burnt-out or failed stars. Profile: Carl Sagan and the Quest for Life in the Universe. He was a leading planetary astronomer, a pioneer in the search for extraterrestrial biology, a spellbinding teacher, and the most effective public advocate for the values of science the world has ever seen. Profile: Carl Sagan and the Quest for Life in the Universe. He was a leading planetary astronomer, a pioneer in the search for the road essay, extraterrestrial biology, a spellbinding teacher, and essay, the most effective public advocate for the values of science the world has ever seen. To hundreds of millions of people, Sagan communicated his passion for the universe of science. “When you’re in the road essay love,” he said, “you want to tell the world.”
Frontiers Lecture: One Second After the Big Bang. Christopher Tully, professor of physics at of an research, Princeton University, discusses a new experiment and the road essay, its potential to challenge core predictions of the qualities essay Big Bang. Frontiers Lecture: One Second After the Big Bang. One of the fundamental predictions of the critical Big Bang is the present day existence of essays relic neutrino produced less than one second after the event. Christopher Tully, professor of physics at Princeton University, discusses a new experiment called PTOLEMY (Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early-Universe, Massive-Neutrino Yield) and its potential to the road essay, challenge this core prediction, as well as uncover new properties of writing wordd neutrinos themselves. Frontiers Lecture: Gravitons, Exotic Higgs Bosons, Or Nothing At All. Particle physicist James Beacham discusses what we’ve learned about gravitons, Higgs bosons, dark matter, and what’s next for the Large Hadron Collider.
Frontiers Lecture: Gravitons, Exotic Higgs Bosons, Or Nothing At All. Barnard College professor and essay, astronomer Janna Levin shares her research on the first recordings of a gravitational wave from the collision of two black holes 1.3 billion years ago. Frontiers Lecture: Gravitational Waves - Messengers from the Warped Universe. Physicist Nergis Mavalvala discusses how we search for gravitational waves and decode the information they carry about events as far back in qualitative and quantitative research time as the first moments after the Big Bang. Frontiers Lecture: Gravitational Waves - Messengers from the Warped Universe. What's The Composition of the Universe? The composition of the the road critical universe is constantly changing. And Contrast And Quantitative Research Essay! The universe began with hydrogen and helium. Critical! Through fusion in the stars and explosive supernovae other heavier elements were created from si tu veux these two elements. What's The Composition of the Universe? The composition of the universe is constantly changing.
The universe began with hydrogen and helium. Through fusion in essay the stars and explosive supernovae other heavier elements were created from these two elements. Overtime more and more light elements were turned into heavier elements. Meet the Universe's Main Attraction. Gravity.
If you throw a ball into the air, it will return to the ground. Why? Earth has invisible pulling power called gravity. Sonography Essays! Every object in the universe-stars, planets, moons, even you - has gravity. Gravity is a force of attraction between all objects. Some things have lots of gravity, some have just a little.
Meet the Universe's Main Attraction. Gravity. If you throw a ball into the air, it will return to the ground. The Road Critical Essay! Why? Earth has invisible pulling power called gravity. Every object in the universe-stars, planets, moons, even you - has gravity. Gravity is a force of attraction between all objects. Some things have lots of gravity, some have just a little. In 1687, a physicist and mathematician named Isaac Newton published a remarkable discovery.
He figured out qualities effective analysis essay, that the critical same force that causes an apple to qualitative and quantitative research, fall to the ground also keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. In 1929, Edwin Hubble showed that the light from distant galaxies is shifted to longer wavelengths in proportion to their distances from the Milky Way. The Road! The modern interpretation is that space itself is expanding, carrying the galaxies along for the ride. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. In 1929, Edwin Hubble showed that the light from essays distant galaxies is shifted to critical essay, longer wavelengths in proportion to their distances from the Milky Way. Exam Essay Tips! The modern interpretation is that space itself is expanding, carrying the galaxies along for the ride. In 1931, Georges Lemaitre imagined running such an expansion backwards in time. At some remote point in the past, he reasoned, everything in the universe would have been packed together at enormous density.
Lemaitre suggested that all the matter and energy in critical the observable universe originated in exam an explosion of space, now called the Big Bang, which launched the expansion that continues to this day. Profile: Vera Rubin and Dark Matter. For every visible star in the observable universe, there are nine masses that are invisible and unidentified. Learn more about the astronomer who proved the existence of essay dark matter. Profile: Vera Rubin and Dark Matter. In a spiral galaxy, the ratio of writing wordd dark-to-light matter is about a factor of ten.
That's probably a good number for the ratio of essay our ignorance-to-knowledge. We're out of kindergarten, but only in essay about third grade. For every visible star in the observable universe, there are nine masses that are invisible and unidentified. Learn more about the astronomer who proved the existence of dark matter. Frontiers Lecture: In Search of the True Universe. Astorophysicist Martin Harwit discusses the new frontier of dark matter and dark energy in critical this 2014 lecture. Frontiers Lecture: In Search of the True Universe. Astronomers are investigating the new frontiers of si tu dark matter and dark energy, critical to understanding the cosmos but of uncertain economic promise to society.
In this 2014 lecture, Astrophysicist and essay, scholar Martin Harwit addresses these current challenges in view of compare and contrast qualitative essay competing national priorities - and he proposes alternative new approaches to the search for the true Universe. 2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation? A panel of experts discussion the merits and shortcomings of the idea that perhaps the universe as we know it is a computer simulation. 2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation? Neil deGrasse Tyson hosts and moderates a panel of experts in a lively discussion about the merits and shortcomings of a provocative and revolutionary idea—that perhaps the universe as we know it is a computer simulation. While the debate may have started as a science fiction speculation, it has become a serious line of essay investigation among physicists, astrophysicists, and veux lyrics, philosophers. Frontiers Lectures: Searching for the Oldest Stars. Join MIT astronomer Anna Frebel for the road essay, a firsthand account of the science of stellar archaeology. Frontiers Lectures: Searching for the Oldest Stars.
Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a vast curtain of energy left over from the Big Bang. It is the oldest, most distant feature of the observable Universe. Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is sonography a vast curtain of energy left over from the Big Bang. It is the oldest, most distant feature of the observable Universe. Since the discovery of the CMB in the mid-1960s, cosmology—the study of the origin and evolution of the Universe—has experienced an explosion of activity.
The field has changed from a purely theoretical enterprise to the empirical study of what populates the physical Universe.